BCA 4030 &SYSTEM SOFTWARE

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SPRING 2016 ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE BCA (REVISED FALL 2012)
SEMESTER 4
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BCA 4030 &SYSTEM SOFTWARE
CREDITS 4
BK ID B1774
MAX. MARKS 60

 

 

 

Question. 1. Describe different types of Assemblers.

 

Answer:An assembly language (or assembler language) is a low-level programming language for a computer, or other programmable device, in which there is a very strong (generally one-to-one) correspondence between the language and the architecture’s machine code instructions. Each assembly language is specific to a particular computer architecture, in contrast to most high-level programming languages, which are generally portable across multiple architectures, but require interpreting or compiling.

 

There are two types of assemblers based on how

 

 

 

 

 

Question. 2. What is Language Processor? Explain about the two Languageprocessing activities.

 

Answer:By a language processor, we mean a program that processes programs written in a programming language (source language). All or part of a language processor is a language translator, which translates the program from the source language into machine code, assembly language, or some other language. The machine code can be for an actual computer or for a virtual (hypothetical) computer. If it is for a virtual

 

 

 

 

Question. 3. What is an assembly language? Explain its basic features. State theadvantage and disadvantages of coding in assembly language.

 

Answer:A programming language that is once removed from a computer’s machine language. Machine languages consist entirely of numbers and are almost impossible for humans to read and write. Assembly languages have the same structure and set of commands as machine languages, but they enable a programmer to use namesinstead of numbers.

 

Each type of CPU has its own machine language and

 

 

 

 

Question. 4. List and explain the various issues which must be considered to makeyour drivers portable across CPU architectures.

 

Answer:Whenever possible, you should design a device driver so that it can accommodate peripheral devices that operate on more then one CPU architecture. You need to consider the following issues to make your drivers portable across CPU architectures:

 

  • Control status register (CSR) access
  • I/O copy operation
  • Direct memory access (DMA) operation

 

 

 

Question. 5. Explain briefly about Android Architecture Libraries.

 

Answer:If you are an Android user, you may know how to carry out the basic functions such as making a call, sending a text message, changing the system settings, install or remove apps etc. Well! Every Android user knows these, but is it enough for you as a developer? Of course Not! So, what else things do we need to know for being successful developers?  I’ll explain. We should know all the key concepts of Android OS. That is the nuts and bolts of the

 

 

 

Question. 6. Write the Steps for addressing UPnP device with proper flowchart

 

Answer:Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) is a set of networking protocols that permits networked devices, such as personal computers, printers, Internet gateways, Wi-Fi access points and mobile devices to seamlessly discover each other’s presence on the network and establish functional network services for data sharing, communications, and entertainment. UPnP is intended primarily for residential networks without enterprise-class devices.  The UPnP technology is promoted by the UPnP Forum, a computer industry initiative to enable

 

 

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BCA 4020 – JAVA PROGRAMMING BCA 4020 – JAVA PROGRAMMING

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SPRING 2016, ASSIGNMENT

 

PROGRAM BCA(REVISED FALL 2012)
SEMESTER 4
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BCA 4020 – JAVA PROGRAMMING BCA 4020 – JAVA PROGRAMMING
CREDIT 4
BK ID B1477
MAX.MARKS 60

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

Q1. Explain any five features of Java.

 

Answer :1) Compiled and Interpreter:- has both Compiled and Interpreter Feature Program of java is First Compiled and Then it is must to Interpret it .First of all The Program of java is Compiled then after Compilation it creates Bytes Codes rather than Machine Language.

 

Then After Bytes Codes are Converted into the Machine Language is Converted into the Machine Language with the help of the Interpreter So For Executing the java Program First of all it is necessary to Compile it then it must be Interpreter

 

 2) Platform Independent:- Java Language is Platform Independent means program of java is Easily transferable because after Compilation of java

 

 

 

Q2. Describe main () method in Java. What are the rules for writing a main () method?

Answer : The main() Method

A Java program needs to start its execution somewhere. A Java program starts by executing the main method of some class. You can choose the name of the class to execute, but not the name of the method. The method must always be called

 

 

 

 

 

Q3. Differentiate between packages and Interfaces.

 

Answer : Packages

Definition:  A package is a grouping of related types providing access protection and name space management. Note that types refers to classes, interfaces, enumerations, and annotation types. Enumerations and annotation types are special kinds of classes and interfaces, respectively, so types are often referred to in this lesson simply as classes and interfaces.

 

Creating a Package:

To create a package, you choose a name for the package and put a package statement with that name at the top of every source file that contains the types (classes, interfaces, enumerations, and annotation types) that you want to include in the

 

 

Q5 Compare JDBC and ODBC

Answer : Typically, software applications are written in a specific programming language (such as Java, C#, etc.), while databases accept queries in some other database specific language (such as SQL). Therefore, when a software application needs to access data in a database, an interface that can translate languages to each other (application and database) is required. Otherwise, application programmers need to learn and incorporate database specific languages within their applications. ODBC (Open Database Connectivity) and JDBC (Java

 

 

Q6 Describe about:

 

  1. a) Swing

Answer : Swing is a GUI widget toolkit for Java. It is part of Oracle’s Java Foundation Classes (JFC) — an API for providing a graphical user interface (GUI) for Java programs.

 

Swing was developed to provide a more sophisticated set of GUI components than the earlier Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT). Swing provides a native look and feel that emulates the look and feel of several platforms, and also supports a pluggable look and feel that allows applications to have a look and feel unrelated to the underlying platform. It has more powerful and flexible components than AWT. In addition to familiar components

 

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BCA 4010 COMPUTER NETWORKING

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SPRING 2016, ASSIGNMENT

 

 

PROGRAM BCA (REVISED FALL 2012)
SEMESTER 4
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BCA 4010 COMPUTER NETWORKING
CREDIT 4
BK ID B0956
MAX.MARKS 60

 

 

 

Q1 What is OSI model? Explain all its layers with diagram.

 

Answer : The OSI, or Open System Interconnection, model defines a networking framework to implement protocols in seven layers. Control is passed from one layer to the next, starting at the application layer in one station, and proceeding to the bottom layer, over the channel to the next station and back up the hierarchy.

 

There’s really nothing to the OSI model. In fact, it’s not even tangible. The OSI model doesn’t do any functions in the networking process, It is a conceptual framework so we can better understand complex interactions that are happening. The OSI

 

 

 

 

Q 2 What is Message switching and Packet switching?

Answer : Message Switching

This technique was somewhere in middle of circuit switching and packet switching. In message switching, the whole message is treated as a data unit and is switching / transferred in its entirety.

A switch working on message switching, first receives the whole message and buffers it until there are resources available to transfer it to the next hop. If the next hop is not having enough resource to accommodate large size message, the

 

 

Q3. List the design issues related to Data Link Layer.

 

Answer : The data link layer or layer 2 is the second layer of the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking. This layer is the protocol layer that transfers data between adjacent network nodes in a wide area network (WAN) or between nodes on the same local area network (LAN) segment.[1] The data link layer provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and might provide the means to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the physical layer.

 

 

Q4.  Briefly explain Point-to-Point Protocol.

 

Answer : PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) is a protocol for communication between two computers using a serial interface, typically a personal computer connected by phone line to a server. For example, your Internet server provider may provide you with a PPP connection so that the provider’s server can respond to your requests, pass them on to the Internet, and forward your requested Internet responses back to you. PPP uses the Internet protocol (IP) (and is designed to handle others). It is sometimes considered a member of the TCP/IP suite of protocols. Relative to the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model, PPP provides layer 2 (data-link layer) service. Essentially, it packages your computer’s TCP/IP packets and forwards them to the server where they can actually be put on the Internet.

 

 

 

Q5. Briefly explain five parts of Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.

Answer : Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)

Description

  • Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is an Internet protocol used to send audio, video, programs, graphics and other binary files.
  • MIME specifies how to convert the non-ASCII data into ASCII allowing it to remain compatible with existing email protocols.
  • MIME defines five additional email header fields: MIME-Version, Content-Description, Content ID, Content-Transfer-Encoding, and Content-Type.
  • The Version field specifies the MIME version and informs the receiver that it is dealing with a MIME message.

 

 

Q6.  Distinguish between IPV4 and IPV6 addressing schemes

Answer : With the advent of Internet, there was a flow of information between the computers through Internet Protocol. IP Addresses were assigned to group of organizations/institutions to open up communication channels between computer networks. This kind of allocation was done through IPv4 Protocol. With the growing technology, there were growing demands of more such addresses for which the IPv4 was understated. Now, there has been news all around about IPv6 setup due to the scantiness of IPv4. But then what is it all about?

 

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BCA3010 – COMPUTER ORIENTED NUMERICAL METHODS

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE SPRING 2016
PROGRAM BCA(REVISED FALL 2012)
Semester 3
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BCA3010 – COMPUTER ORIENTED NUMERICAL METHODS
CREDIT 4
BK ID B 1643
MAX.MARKS 60

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

Q.1 Find the Taylors Series for (𝑥) = 𝑥3 − 10𝑥2 + 6 about 𝑥0 = 3

Solution: Consider the one dimensional initial value problem

y’ = f(x, y),   y(x0) = y0

where

f is a function of two variables x and y and (x0 , y0) is a known point on the solution curve.

 

 

  1. 2. Find a real root of the transcendental equation cos x – 3x+1 = 0, correct to four decimal places using iteration method.

Solution: Iteration Method: Let the given equation be f(x) = 0 and the value of x to be determined. By using the Iteration method you can find the roots of the equation. To find the root of the equation first we have to write equation like below

x = pi(x)

Let x=x0 be an initial approximation of the required root α then the first approximation x1 is given by x1 = pi(x0).

 

Q.3 Solve the equations

 

2x + 3y + z = 9

x + 2y + 3z = 6

3x + y + 2z = 8 by LU decomposition method.

 

Solution: We shall solve the system

2x + 3y + z = 9

x + 2y + 3z = 6

3x + y + 2z = 8

 

 

Q.4 Fit a second degree parabola y = a + bx + cx2 in the least square method for the following data and hence estimate y at x = 6.

 

X 1 2 3 4 5
Y 10 12 13 16 19

 

Solution: The given straight line fit be y = ax+b. The normal equations of least squre fit are

aSxi2 + bSxi = Sxiyi —————- (1)

and    aSxi + nb = Syi  ——————— (2)

 

 

 

Q.5 The population of a certain town is shown in the following table

Year X 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971
Population Y 40.62 60.80 79.95 103.56 132.65

Find the rate of growth of the population in 1961.

 

Solution:

Year X 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971
Population Y 40.62 60.80 79.95 103.56 132.65

 

Here h = 10

 

 

  1. 6. Solve of 𝑦𝑛+2 − 2 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝛼 𝑦𝑛+1 + 𝑦𝑛 = 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝛼𝑛.

 

Solution: The order of the difference equation is the difference between the largest and smallest arguments occur-ring in the difference equation divided by the unit of argument.Thus, the order of the difference equation=Largest argument Smallest argument Unit of argument.

 

We have yn = A2n + B(-2)n             => yn-A2n – B(-2)n

 

 

 

 

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IB0013 –Export Import management

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE SPRING 2016
PROGRAM MBADS (SEM 3/SEM 5) MBAFLEX/ MBA (SEM 3) PGDIB (SEM 1)
SUBJECT CODE & NAME IB0013 –Export Import management
CREDIT 4
BK ID B 1907
MAX.MARKS 60

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

Question.1. What are the various approaches to exporting? Explain the benefits of export?

 

Answer:The term export means shipping in the goods and services out of the jurisdiction of a country. The seller of such goods and services is referred to as an “exporter” and is based in the country of export whereas the overseas based buyer is referred to as an “importer”. In international trade, “exports” refers to selling goods and services produced in the home country to other markets.

 

Increasing sales: Exporting is one way of increasing your sales potential; it expands the “pie” that you earn money from, otherwise you are stuck trying to make money only out of the local market. In the case of South Africa, our

 

Question.2. Explain the procedure for Establishing a Business Firm.

 

Answer:Starting a company is hard work that requires attention to detail and a checklist on the right procedures. According to CNN Money, starting your own business can be a anxious decision to make. One of the ways you can help gain confidence in your business startup is to follow the basic procedures on starting a company.

 

Business Plan: Without a business plan, it can be difficult to

Question.3. What are the Terms and Conditions of an Export Order?

 

Answer:In reality, an export exercise is concluded successfully only after the exporter has been able to deliver the consignment in accordance with the export contract and receive payment for the goods.

 

This involves practice of prescribed procedure to be performed (Branch 2000). The fact is that one does not need only to be very well informed about his/her export company, his/her products, his/her suppliers, his/her export chain, his/her market, the world market, but one also needs to know the export rules and terms, the different cultures that one targets and the final customers’ needs.

 

 

Question.5. What are the various types of commercial documents used in export trade?

Explain in detail.

 

Answer: Documents required for an international sale can vary significantly from transaction to transaction, depending on the destination and the product being shipped. At a minimum, there will be two documents: the invoice and the transport document. The buyer will usually provide the seller with a list of documents needed to get the goods into his country as expeditiously and inexpensively as possible. Some documentary

 

 

Question.6. What are the Various Schemes Offered to Exporters?

types of schemes offered

 

Answer:The mutual fund industry of India is continuously evolving. Along the way, several industry bodies are also investing towards investor education. Yet, according to a report by Boston Analytics, less than 10% of our households consider mutual funds as an investment avenue. It is still considered as a high-risk option.

 

In fact, a basic inquiry about the types of mutual funds reveals that these are perhaps one of the most flexible, comprehensive and hassle free modes of investments that can accommodate various types of investor needs.

 

 

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IB0011– International Marketing

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE SPRING 2016
PROGRAM MBADS – (SEM 3/SEM 5) / MBAN2 / MBAFLEX – (SEM 3) /

PGDIB – (SEM 1)

SUBJECT CODE & NAME IB0011– International Marketing
BK ID B1199
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

 

Question.1. Discuss the concept of international marketing. How is international marketing difference from domestic marketing?

 

Answer:International marketing or global marketing refers to marketing executed by transatlantic companies or across national borders. This strategy uses an extension of the techniques used in the main country of the company. According to the American Marketing Association the “international marketing is a multinational process of planning and executing the conception, put price, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchanges

 

 

Question.2. Explain Hofstede’s cultural dimension. Discuss the main elements of culture with examples

 

Answer:Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory is a framework for cross-cultural communication, developed by Geert Hofstede. It describes the effects of a society’s culture on the values of its members, and how these values relate to behavior, using a structure derived from factor analysis.

 

Hofstede developed his original model as a result of using factor analysis to examine the results of a world-wide survey of employee values by IBM between 1967 and 1973. It has been refined since. The original theory proposed four dimensions along which cultural values could be analyzed:

 

Question.3. Define international marketing research approach? Discuss the international research process.

 

Answer:International Market Research is a particular discipline of Market Research, focusing on certain geographical areas.

 

International Market Research is concerned with consumer goods, but also with any resource or service within a value chain which will be commercially utilised or further processed – which is the area of industrial goods and B2B-Marketing.

 

International market research projects may have various

 

Question.4. Discuss the various steps in the process of product development. Describe international product life cycle.

 

Answer:Product Life Cycle Stages:As consumers, we buy millions of products every year. And just like us, these products have a life cycle. Older, long-established products eventually become less popular, while in contrast, the demand for new, more modern goods usually increases quite rapidly after they are launched.

 

Because most companies understand the different product life cycle stages, and that the products they sell all have a limited lifespan, the majority of them will invest heavily in new product development in order to make sure that their businesses continue to grow.

 

Product Life Cycle Stages Explained

 

The product life

 

Question.5. Write short notes on:

 

  1. a) export documentation

 

Answer:If you are an exporter, you would have already set up an Export company by following necessary government rules and regulations. By choosing your export product, you would have sent export samples to your international buyer if required and got approved. After necessary communication with your overseas buyer on terms of payment and terms of delivery, you arrange to issue proforma invoice, in turn you receive export order followed by purchase order from your overseas buyer. The terms of payment for your export contract could be advance payment, Documents against Acceptance DA

 

Question.6. Define ethical problems in international Marketing? Explain the 4ps of international marketing?

 

Answer:The Ninja Corporation’s business has increased dramatically each year. They are under enormous pressure to keep their stockholders happy. The results of the company’s yearly board meeting showed that in order for them to keep growing at such a fast pace, they will need to expand to international markets. Ninja Corp.’s martial arts products are very popular (especially their bandanas), and the company believes Canada, Europe, and India should be considered for the expansion. The traditional marketing mix, consisting of product, place, price, and promotion, will have to be tweaked in many ways in order to reach international markets.

 

The First Steps: In order to create an

 

 

 

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IB0010 & INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE SPRING 2016
PROGRAM MBADS – (SEM 4/SEM 6) / MBAN2 / MBAFLEX – (SEM 4) /

PGDFMN – (SEM 2)

SUBJECT CODE & NAME IB0010 & INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
SEMESTER 4
BK ID B1759
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

 

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme

 

 

Question.1. Explain the difference between International Financial Management and Domestic Financial Management? Discuss the goals of international financial management?

 

Answer: International finance is different from domestic finance in many aspects and first and the most significant of them is foreign currency exposure. There are other aspects such as the different political, cultural, legal, economical, and taxation environment. International financial management involves a lot of currency derivatives whereas such derivatives are very less used in domestic financial management.

 

 

International Finance vs. Domestic Finance

 

Exposure to Foreign Exchange: The most significant difference is of foreign currency exposure. Currency exposure impacts almost all the areas of

 

 

Question.2. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of fixed and floating rates systems? Discuss foreign exchange transactions?

 

Answer: Fiat currency doesn’t imply a fixed exchange rate. In fact, fiat currencies are compatible with a floating exchange rate regime, in which the value of a currency is determined in foreign exchange markets.

 

Floating exchange rates have these main advantages:

 

  • No need for international management of exchange rates: Unlike fixed exchange rates based on a metallic standard, floating exchange rates don’t require an international manager such

Question.3. Explain the concept of Swap. Write down its features and various types of interest rate swap.

 

Answer: A swap is a derivative contract through which two parties exchange financial instruments. These instruments can be almost anything, but most swaps involve cash flows based on a notional principal amount that both parties agree to. Usually, the principal does not change hands. Each cash flow comprises one leg of the swap. One cash flow is generally fixed, while the other is variable, that is, based on aa benchmark interest rate, floating currency exchange rate or index price.

 

The most common kind of swap is an interest rate swap. Swaps do not trade on exchanges, and retail investors do not generally engage in swaps. Rather, swaps are over-the-counter contracts between businesses or financial institutions.

 

In an interest rate swap,

 

 

 

Question.4. Elaborate on meaning of foreign exchange exposure. Explain the types of foreign exposure.

Meaning of foreign exchange exposure

Explain the types of foreign exposure

 

Answer: Foreign exchange exposure is classified into three types viz. Transaction, Translation and Economic Exposure. Transaction exposure deals with actual foreign currency transaction. Translation exposure deals with the accounting representation and economic exposure deals with little macro level exposure which may be true for the whole industry rather than just the firm under concern.

 

Foreign exchange exposure

 

Question.5. Write short notes on:

 

International Credit Markets

 

Answer: The credit market is a broad market for companies looking to raise funds through debt issuance. The credit market encompasses both investment-grade bonds and junk bonds, as well as short-term commercial paper.

 

The market for debt offerings as seen by investors of bonds, notes and securitized obligations such as mortgage pools and collateralized debt obligations (CDOs).

 

The credit markets

International Bond Markets

 

Answer: An international bond is a debt investment that is issued in a country by a non-domestic entity. International bonds are issued in countries outside of the United States, in their native country’s currency. They pay interest at specific intervals, and pay the principal amount back to the bond’s buyer at maturity.

 

Question.6. Country risk is the risk of investing in a country, where a change in the business environment adversely affects the profit or the value of the assets in a specific country. Explain the country risk factors and assessment of risk factors.

 

Answer: Country risk refers to the risk of investing or lending in a country, arising from possible changes in the business environment that may adversely affect operating profits or the value of assets in the country. For example, financial factors such as currency controls, devaluation or regulatory changes, or stability factors such as mass riots, civil war and other potential events contribute to companies’ operational risks. This term is also sometimes referred to as political risk; however, country risk is a more general term that generally refers only to risks affecting all companies operating within or involved with a particular country.

Important Steps When Investing Overseas

 

 

Once country analysis has been completed, several investment decisions need to be made. The first choice is to decide where to invest, by choosing among several possible investment approaches, including:

 

  • Investing in a

 

 

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BT9403, Virtual Reality

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ASSIGNMENT

 

PROGRAM BSc IT
SEMESTER SIXTH
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BT9403, Virtual Reality
CREDITS 4
BK ID B1368
MARKS 60

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

 

 

Question. 1. Write a note on Convolvotron. Draw the block diagram of it.

 

Answer:The Convolvotron includes two circuit boards that are installed in slots of a PC-compatible computer. The Convolvotron uses a spatial sound synthesis method involving the direct convolution of an audio signal with pairs of filters

When master controller 102 directs a sound to spatial sound processor 112, it also provides spatial sound processor 112 with 3-D position information for the channel. The position information is updated periodically, preferably at a rate of approximately 60 Hz, using control signal path 122.

 

 

The Convolvotron accepts channel position information in either head-relative or absolute position format. The head-relative

 

 

Question. 2. Define haptic feedback. Explain haptic sensing.

 

Answer:Tactile Feedback is a type of Haptic Feedback. Haptic feedback is generally divided into two different classes: Tacticle and Kinesthetic. The difference between the two is quite complex, but at a high level:

 

Kinesthetic: The things you feel from sensors in your muscles, joints, tendons. Weight, stretch, joint angles of your arm, hand, wrist, fingers, etc. Imagine holding a coffee-mug  in your hand. Kinesthetic feedback tells your brain the approximate size of the mug, it’s weight, and how you are holding it relative to your body.

 

Tactile:

 

 

Question. 3. Define distributed VR engine. Write a note on multiple pipeline synchronization.

 

Answer:One key element for interaction with a virtual world, is a means of tracking the position of a real world object, such as a head or hand. There are numerous methods for position tracking and control. Ideally a technology should provide 3 measures for position(X, Y, Z) and 3 measures of orientation (roll, pitch, yaw). One of the biggest problem for position tracking is latency, or the time required to make the measurements and preprocess them before input to the simulation engine.

 

The simplest control hardware is a

 

Synchronization – Scheduling multiple projects

 

The TOC multi-project solution recognizes that the effectiveness of individual projects can be threatened if the organization tries to push more projects through its pipeline than it is capable of. Scheduling — the actual promising of individual project completions — must take into account any constraining aspects of that pipeline. While the common existence of practices like multi-tasking or due-date behaviors typically prove out to outstrip any actual resource constraint, the possibility of such a constraint is useful as an

 

Question. 4. Explain the first stage of haptic rendering.

 

Answer:Humans explore objects in many steps. Typically, we first visually scan the environment with our eyes to locate the position of the object. We then touch the object to feel its general shape. Finally, a more careful manual exploration is made to investigate the surface and material characteristics of the object. Manual sensing of shape, softness, and texture of an object occurs through tactile and kinesthetic sensory systems that respond to spatial and temporal distribution of forces on the hand. Recent advances in virtual reality and robotics enable the human tactual system to be stimulated in a controlled manner through force feedback devices, also known as haptic interfaces. A haptic interface is a device that enables manual interaction with virtual environments or teleoparated remote systems.

 

 

Question. 5. Expalin automatic cell segmentation process.

 

Answer:With the huge amount of cell images produced in bio-imaging, automatic methods for segmentation are needed in order to evaluate the content of the images with respect to types of cells and their sizes. Traditional PDE-based methods using level-sets can perform automatic segmentation, but do not perform well on images with clustered cells containing sub-structures. Furthermore, DIC images contain a phase gradient, which should be removed first.

 

In recent years, high-throughput microscopy has emerged as a powerful tool to analyze cellular dynamics in an unprecedentedly

 

Question. 6. Explain the geometry of stereoscopic vision. Give the advantages of stereopsis.

 

Answer:Stereopsis (from the Greek στερεο- stereo- meaning “solid”, and ὄψιςopsis, “appearance, sight”) is a term that is most often used to refer to the perception of depth and 3-dimensional structure obtained on the basis of visual information deriving from two eyes by individuals with normally developed binocular vision. Because the eyes of humans, and many animals, are located at different lateral positions on the head, binocular vision results in two slightly different images projected to the retinas of the eyes. The differences are mainly in the relative horizontal position of objects in the two images. These positional differences are referred to as horizontal disparities or, more generally, binocular disparities. Disparities are processed in the visual cortex of the brain to yield depth perception. While binocular disparities are naturally present when viewing a real 3-dimensional scene with two eyes, they can also be simulated by artificially presenting two different images separately to each eye using a method called stereoscopy. The perception of depth in such cases is also referred to as “stereoscopic depth”.

 

that makes stereo vision so rich and special.

 

Stereo Vision Has Many Advantages

 

Stereo vision–or stereoscopic vision –probably evolved as a means of survival. With stereo vision, we can see WHERE

 

 

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BT9402, Artificial Intelligence

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ASSIGNMENT

 

PROGRAM BSc IT
SEMESTER SIXTH
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BT9402, Artificial Intelligence
CREDITS 4
BK ID B1367
MARKS 60

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

 

Question.1. Briefly explain Attributes of Artificial Intelligence (AI).

 

Answer:Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence exhibited by machines. In computer science, an ideal “intelligent” machine is a flexible rational agent that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of success at an arbitrary goal. Colloquially, the term “artificial intelligence” is likely to be applied when a machine uses cutting-edge techniques to competently perform or mimic “cognitive” functions that we intuitively associate with human minds, such as “learning” and “problem solving”.

Several methods of knowledge representation can be drawn upon. Two of these methods include:

 

  1. Frame-based systems – are employed for building very powerful ESs. A frame specifies the attributes of a complex object and frames for various object types have specified relationships.

 

  1. Production rules– are the \

 

Goals of AI

 

 

Question.2. Explain State Space Search. What do you mean by production system?

 

Answer:State space search is a process used in the field of computer science, including artificial intelligence (AI), in which successive configurations or states of an instance are considered, with the goal of finding a goal state with a desired property.

 

Problems are often

 

S.No Problems Techniques

 

  1. Chess Hill climbing
  2. Water Jug Best – First Search, Branch and Bound
  3. 8 –

 

 

Question.3. Explain the Inheritance and Reification in semantic networks.

 

Answer:Semantic nets consist of nodes, links (edges) and link labels. In the semantic network diagram, nodes appear as circles or ellipses or rectangles to represent objects such as physical objects, concepts or situations. Links appear as arrows to express the relationships between objects, and link labels specify particular relations. Relationships provide the basic structure for organizing knowledge. The objects and relations involved

Figure: A Semantic Network

 

In the above figure all the objects are within ovals and

 

Question.4. Explain the two principal parts of an expert system.

 

Answer:Expert system is an artificial intelligence program that has expert-level knowledge about a particular domain and knows how to use its knowledge to respond properly. Domain refers to the area within which the task is being performed. Ideally the expert systems should substitute a human expert. Edward Feigenbaum of Stanford University has defined expert system as “an intelligent computer program that uses knowledge and

Components of Expert Systems

Basic Concept of an Expert System Function: The expert

.

 

 

 

Question.5. Describe the factors affecting learning performance of a system.

 

Answer:Meaningfulness effect: Highly meaningful words are easier to learn and remember than less meaningful words. This is true whether meaningful is measured by

 

1) the number of associations the learner has for the word,

2) by frequency of the word

3) or by familiarity with the sequential order of letters,

4) or the tendency of the work to elicit clear images.

 

An implication is that retention will be improved to the extent the user can make meaning of the material.

 

Serial positioneffects: Serial

 

Question.6. Briefly explain the hardware requirements for designing a robot.

 

Answer:The concept of creating machines that can operate autonomously dates back to classical times, but research into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow substantially until the 20th century. Throughout history, it has been frequently assumed that robots will one day be able to mimic human behavior and manage tasks in a human-like fashion. Today, robotics is a rapidly growing field, as

 

 

To correctly print Robot calculation notes, you must have a word processor supporting *.rtf (Rich Text Format) format files, such as MS Word version 6.0 or higher, or WordPad.

 

The most important features of Robot include:

 

  • A graphic editor that can define a structure completely. You can also load .DXF format files of the

 

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BT9302, Human Computer Interface

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ASSIGNMENT

 

PROGRAM BSc IT
SEMESTER SIXTH
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BT9302, Human Computer Interface
CREDITS 4
BK ID B1364
MARKS 60

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

 

Question. 1.List all the principles of designing graphical user interface. Explain any eight of them.

 

Answer:In computer science, a graphical user interface (GUI), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation. GUIs were introduced in reaction to the perceived steep learning curve of command-line interfaces (CLIs), which require commands to be typed on a computer keyboard.

 

The actions in a GUI

Question.2. Explain the phases in determining basic business functions.

 

Answer:Step 1 – Get Oriented

 

Often as business analysts we are expected to dive in to a project and start contributing as quickly as possible to make a positive impact. Sometimes the project is already underway. Other times there are vague notions about what the project is or why it exists. We face a lot of ambiguity as business analysts and it’s our job to clarify the scope, requirements, and business objectives as quickly as possible.

 

Step 2 – Discover

 

Question.3. Explain the uses of toolbars and message boxes in designing windows.

 

Answer:In computer interface design, a toolbaris a graphical control element on which on-screen buttons, icons, menus, or other input or output elements are placed. Toolbars are seen in many types of software such as office suites, graphics editors and web browsers. Toolbars are usually distinguished from palettes by their integration into the edges of the screen or larger windows, which results in wasted space if too

Variants and derivatives

 

There several user interface elements derived from toolbars:

 

  • Address bar, location bar or

 

Question.4. Explain Goal-Operation-Methods-Selections (GOMS) user interface design approach. List advantages and disadvantages of it.

 

Answer:GOMS is a specialized human information processor model for human-computer interaction observation that describes a user’s cognitive structure on four components. In the book The Psychology of Human Computer Interaction.written in 1983 by Stuart K. Card, Thomas P. Moran and Allen Newell, the authors introduce:

 

Qualification

 

Advantages: The GOMS approach to

 

 

Question.5. Briefly explain the features of different keyboard layouts. Describe the features of keys.

 

Answer:A keyboard layout is any specific mechanical, visual, or functional arrangement of the keys, legends, or key-meaning associations (respectively) of a computer, typewriter, or other typographic keyboard.

 

Mechanical layout: The placements and keys of a keyboard.

Visual layout: The arrangement of the legends (labels, markings, engravings) that appear on the keys of a keyboard.

Functional layout:

 

 

 

Question.6. Write a note on joystick and graphic tablet device based controls.

 

Answer:A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling. A joystick, also known as the control column, is the principal control device in the cockpit of many civilian and military aircraft, either as a center stick or side-stick. It often has supplementary switches to control various aspects of the aircraft’s flight.

 

Joysticks are often used to control video games,

 

 

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