SUBJECT : International Marketing Mgt & Research

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SUBJECT : International Marketing Mgt & Research



  1. 1) Who was the Target Market for Virgin Mobile?

Answer: Virgin Mobile is part of Virgin Group Limited, a venture capital conglomerate founded by British business tycoon Sir Richard Branson. Virgin Mobile was the first Mobile Virtual Network Operator which launched in United Kingdom in 1999 as a joint venture between T-Mobile and Virgin Group. This means that Virgin Mobile does not maintain its own network; instead uses long term contracts to use networks and infrastructure of existing mobile service providers, T-Mobile in this case. After its launch, Virgin Mobile followed niche marketing and targeted consumers within the age groups of 18 to 35 years. The company marketed its brand smartly among its target market by creating flashy advertisements and attractive sales outlets. It initially targeted to tap




  1. 2) What do you understand by Value Creation in context to this case study?

Answer: Various steps that Virgin is taking to add value to the customer are on price, quality, technology and social front. Company is providing the best prices in whichever plan you go, quality of signals is not only comparable but better than most of the service providers, on technology front it is the first in India to go for one-touch VAS access from every Virgin Mobile.

Under the terms of the new services agreement, IBM will begin transitioning Virgin Mobile USA’s existing IT infrastructure and application suite into its own environment. Simultaneously and continuing over the course of the next five years, IBM will work with Virgin Mobile USA to develop new and differentiated wireless applications and service offerings. Specifically, IBM will provide Virgin Mobile USA with data center outsourcing and application management services including maintenance and development.

The agreement provides Virgin Mobile USA with yet




  1. 3) Does the customer acquisition and retention strategy really help Virgin Mobiles?

Answer: The company is aware that they are entering into a very established and competitive market to position themselves. They understand that they cannot start making profit from the day one neither they have any plans for it: According to the patron, Sir Richard “We want to offer a more customized and significant offering for a single segment.” Only 10% of the above mentioned segment company targets and have plans to attain and hold them by various innovative propositions, some of them are:

  • Providing services which were not offered so far



  1. 4.) Study and elaborate the business model of Virgin mobile?

Answer: Virgin Mobile, a service provider in UK which was launched in 1999 as the world’s first Mobile Virtual Network Operator (MVNO). Being a virtual network operator, Virgin Mobile does not maintain the technical infrastructure for its service offerings instead uses long term contracts with Mobile Network Operators (T-Mobile in this case) to use their technical setup. Virgin Mobile was launched as a joint venture involving T-Mobile and Virgin Group. Virgin Group is a British conglomerate offering business products like Beverages, Airlines, Trains, Financial services, Cable TV, Cosmetics and other host of products and services. Each of these businesses operate




Q 2.) SOTC: An Overview


  1. 1. What P’s are involved in marketing mix of services?

Answer:The marketing mix is the set of controllable, tactical marketing tools that a company uses to produce a desired response from its target market. It consists of everything that a company can do to influence demand for its product. It is also a tool to help marketing planning and execution.

The four Ps of marketing: product,




  1. 2. Explain the People mix with reference to SOTC?

Answer: People are the most important element of any service or experience. Services tend to be produced and consumed at the same moment, and aspects of the customer experience are altered to meet the individual needs of the person consuming it. Most of us can think of a situation where the personal service offered by individuals has made or tainted a tour, vacation or restaurant meal. Remember, people buy from people that they like, so the attitude, skills and appearance of all staff need to be first class. People have an important role in




  1. 3. State the key to success for SOTC?

Answer: Setting an endeavor may not always be an easy task; obstacles are bound to come in its way and when this happens, help is welcome and needless to say without help of those people whom we are mentioning here, this endeavor would not have been successful. We wish to thank our parents for their undivided support and interest, who have inspired us and encouraged us to go our own way, without whom we would unable to complete this project. We are grateful to our Marketing Professor, MrMenon for his continuous support for the project, from initial advice in the early stages of conceptual inception, and through ongoing advice and encouragement to this




Q 3.) ICICI: Hum HaiNaa


  1. 1. According to u what driven the success of ICICI in presence of so many nationalizedbanks?

Answer: What’s ICICI’s secret? An uncanny ability to continually transform its financial products, operational processes, and customer-facing services by exploiting world-class technologies. Unlike most Western CEOs, Kamath believes that business and technology are intertwined and as such must be integrated into a coherent “business technology (BT)” strategy, which Kamath summarizes into a neat value equation: (People x Process)^Technology = Value.



  1. 2. What do you understand by customer satisfaction? How did ICICI gain it?

Answer: Auditing the way of service provided in a branch of ICICI Bank gives lot more clarity of the services delivered to their customers. Basically, the service-profit chain establishes relationships between profitability, customer loyalty, and employee satisfaction, loyalty, and productivity. The links in the chain (which should be regarded as propositions) are




  1. 3. How the ICICI did changed the Indian Banking approaches?

Answer:ICICI Bank is an Indian multinational banking and financial services company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra. As of 2014 it is the second largest bank in India in terms of assets and market capitalization. It offers a wide range of banking products and financial services for corporate and retail customers through a variety of delivery channels and specialized subsidiaries in the areas of investment banking, life, non-life insurance, venture capital and asset management. The Bank has a network of 3,800 branches and 11,162 ATMs in India, and has a





  1. 4. What you understand by Post Decision Process?

Answer: Banking in Indian post nationalization in 1969 projected a picture of a laid back approach, where the basic focus was driven towards savings and deposits. Most retail customers with banks operated with in the dictate laid down by banking regulations. Aspects like, banking between 10- 2pm, Saturday half-day, Sunday off day, lag time get



Q 4.) Why Grow Up” Frooti


  1. 1. What is main objective of the “why grow up “campaign?

Answer: “Why Grow Up” was a campaign started by Parle Agro to give Frooti new look and new positioning. The campaign was started in 2009 and now when we look back, it seems that creative agency has done a wonderful job in creating this campaign. Advocacy is the most powerful means of creating goodwill and thus creating stronger brand. In all these advertisements, company has used common people and they are seen playing around with large, non-symmetrical, funny mango.  This is a great strategy in which brand has given preference to





  1. 2. According to you what impact did the “why grow up campaign on consumer’s mind?

Answer:Frooti, or Mango Frooti, as it is popularly called, is the largest-selling ready-to-consume mango drink in India. Launched in 1985, it is the flagship product of Parle Agro Pvt. Ltd. When it was launched, it took the country by storm as it was the only beverage sold in an innovative Tetra Pak packaging which was a new concept for Indian consumers.

Ever since its launch, Frooti has acquired a large market share and continues to be the most popular mango drink even today. The tagline “Mango Frooti – Fresh and Juicy” has huge brand recall value for consumers and has helped the brand strengthen and consolidate



  1. 3. What role do the packaging plays create an image of brand like frooti?

Answer:When Frooti was launched in a green rectangular tetrapak as a ready-to-serve mango drink, it was a first of its kind in India. Since, the packs could be carried easily and conveniently, the packaging played a major role behind making the product popular. The catchy tagline helped the brand gain an unparalleled recall value in the product category, as Chauhan says, “One of the reasons, due to which Frooti has been able to maintain its leadership position, is the brand’s unique ability to change that has kept it true to its essence, “Fresh ‘n’ juicy.”The brand, initially




  1. 4. How successful the “why grow up” campaign?

Answer:The copy writing of Mango Frooti like where one of the print ad says “Sip It Like Nobody’s Watching” is really nice and catchy and in another where there is an empty frootibottle,its bit creative it shows that how frooti has a soothing effect on people.I feel Mango frooti should come up with more creative and innovative ads. There are print ads which are a part of their recent campaign “Why Grow Up”. These ads are actually creative,where pictures do all the talking it doesn’t even confuse the audience. There is one of the digital ad which appeared in one of


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Note : Each Question Carries Equal Marks





(10 Marks)





Today the pace of economic change is far rapid than at any point in the history of mankind with eachpassing moment, the economics of the world are getting further integrated and interlinked. The term ‘globalvillage’ is no longer a myth, but a reality which we need to live with.The world over, these are shifts towards lesser government involvement in the field of business. The famousquote “The business of government is not to be in business” by John Moose seems to hold relevance thesedays, because of the privatization wave across the countries.


Question.1. Explain the term privatization?


Answer:Privatization, also spelled privatisation (in British English), may have several meanings. Primarily, it is the process of transferring ownership of a business, enterprise, agency, public service, or public property from the public sector (a government) to the private sector, either to a business that operates for a profit or to a nonprofit organization. It may also mean the government outsourcing of services or functions to private firms, e.g. revenue collection, law enforcement, and prison management.


Privatization has also been used to describe two unrelated transactions. The first is the buying of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company





Question.2. Explain the modes of privatization?


Answer:“Privatization” is an umbrella term covering several distinct types of transactions. Broadly speaking, it means the shift of some or all of the responsibility for a function from government to the private sector. The term has most commonly been applied to the divestiture, by sale or long-term lease, of a state-owned enterprise to private investors. But another major form of privatization is the granting of a long-term franchise or concession under which the private sector finances, builds, and operates a major infrastructure project. A third type of privatization involves government selecting a private entity to deliver a public service that had previously been produced in-house by public employees. This form of privatization is increasingly called outsourcing. (Other forms of privatization, not discussed here, include service shedding, vouchers,





Question.3. What are the reasons for privatization?


Answer:In economic theory, privatization has been studied in the field of contract theory. When contracts are complete, institutions such as (private or public) property are difficult to explain, since every desired incentive structure can be achieved with sufficiently complex contractual arrangements, regardless of the institutional structure (all that matters is who are the decision makers and what is their available information). In contrast, when contracts are incomplete, institutions matter. A leading application of the incomplete contract paradigm in the context of privatization is the model by Hart, Shleifer, and Vishny (1997). In their model, a manager can make investments to increase quality (but they may also increase costs) and investments to decrease costs (but they may also reduce quality). It turns out that it





Question.4. Explain the problems of privatization?


Answer:Opponents of certain privatizations believe that certain public goods and services should remain primarily in the hands of government in order to ensure that everyone in society has access to them (such as law enforcement, basic health care, and basic education). There is a positive externality when the government provides society at large with public goods and services such as defense and disease control. Some national constitutions in effect define their governments’ “core businesses” as being the provision of such things as justice, tranquility, defense, and general welfare. These governments’ direct provision of security, stability, and safety, is intended to be done for the common good (in the public interest) with a long-term (for posterity) perspective. As for natural monopolies, opponents of privatization claim that they aren’t subject to fair competition, and better administrated by the state. Likewise, private goods




Question.5. Discuss the types of mergers?


Answer:As recently as the 1970s, many major industries in OECD countries were owned by the state, in keeping with the Fabian Society’s dictum that the “commanding heights” of the economy should be in government hands.1 As is still true today of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) in China and many other developing countries, these businesses were generally run at a loss, subsidized by all the taxpayers. In other words, the value of their outputs was less than the value of their inputs, making them into value-subtracting (rather than value-adding) enterprises. The reasons for this situation were many, but generally they included explicit
















(10 Marks)




Cipla is one of the biggest manufacturers of bulk drugs and formulations.


The company has introduced several formulations and active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIS). Itcommissioned the second phase of its manufacturing operations in Goa and has entered into a researchalliance for biopharmaceutical products with a Bangalore-based biotech company.


AN ISO 9001 : 2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOLCipla exports a wide range of APIS and formulations to over 150 countries. Cipla has entered into newarrangements with leading US generic companies for the supply of a wide range of finished dosageformulations. They have obtained approvals from USFDA, MHRA of UK, PIC of Germany and WHO, formost of their drugs. Its overall profitability was due to the optimization of resources and implementation ofrigorous cost control measures.


Cipla focuses on technological excellence and innovation to improve its performance both in domestic andinternational markets. The company has already accepted the growing importance of strategic alliances forresearch, manufacture and marketing, in the changing business environment.


Question.1. Discuss the rationale for Cipla’s focus on exports?


Answer:Technically, Cipla’s third quarter performance was better than what it was in the previous two quarters of the fiscal. However, indications that the company would take more time to achieve a healthier growth momentum came as a disappointment.


Cipla’s net sales growth of 13% was modest, given the low base a year ago. Operating profit margins rose by 167 bps on the back of changes in product mix, but higher tax outgo (due to expiry of tax holidays) has squeezed the bottom line. Growth in exports, accounting for half of its revenues, was a letdown. Despite the rupee’s fall, export revenue grew only 10.7%, compared with 9.5% and 8.4% in the preceding quarters. The exports growth has been erratic over the past few quarters due to its strategy to focus less on the low-margin anti-AIDS formulations.







Question.2. Discuss the rationale for Cipla’s focus on strategic alliances?


Answer:Cipla, one of the underperforming stocks among frontline pharma companies, could emerge as a dark horse in the pharma industry. However, certain concerns regarding strategies adopted by the company and its prospects in the domestic business prevent us from being very bullish about the stock.


BUSINESS & GROWTH DRIVERS: The company’s performance in the last four quarters has not been very encouraging, characterised as it were by a drop in profits and margins. Poor growth rates in the domestic market and fluctuating fortunes in the export markets have made the company’s performance highly uncertain.


The positive development is that commercial production is steadily increasing at the company’s Indore SEZ, which became operational recently. Launch of






Question.3. Carry out SWOT analysis of Pharmaceutical industry?


Answer:It is often said that the pharma sector has no cyclical factor attached to it. Irrespective of whether the economy is in a downturn or in an upturn, the general belief is that demand for drugs is likely to grow steadily over the long-term.


True in some sense. But are there risks? This article gives a perspective of the Indian pharma industry by carrying out a SWOT analysis (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat).


Before we start the analysis lets look a little back in the industry’s last six years performance. The Industry is a largely fragmented and highly competitive



Question.4. Analyse the impact of liberalization and globalization on pharmaceuticals sectors?


Answer:Effects of Globalization on Indian Industry started when the government opened the country’s markets to foreign investments in the early 1990s. Globalization of the Indian Industry took place in its various sectors such as steel, pharmaceutical, petroleum, chemical, textile, cement, retail, and BPO.


Globalization means the dismantling of trade barriers between nations and the integration of the nations economies through financial flow, trade in goods and services, and corporate investments between nations. Globalization has increased across the world in recent years due to the fast progress that has been made in the field of






















(10 Marks)




The factors driving mergers and acquisitions include globalization, technology, deregulation, favourable economic and financial conditions, and changes in the business laws. The structural adjustment programmeand the new industrial policy adopted by the government of India have allowed business firms to undertakeany programme of expansion either by entering into a new market or through expansion in an existing


Market. In that context, many organizations are increasingly resorting to mergers and acquisitions as ameans of growth.


Question.1. Explain the term Mergers?


Answer:In General,”Merger is absorption of one or more companies by a single existing company.”


In Finance,”Merger is an act or process of purchasing equity shares (ownership shares) of one or more companies by a single existing company.”


Meaning of Merger


Before we understand, What is Merger? First, let’s find out the simple meaning of an acquiring company and acquired companies.


  • Acquiring company is a single existing company that purchases the majority of equity shares of one or more companies.
  • Acquired companies are those companies that surrender the majority of their equity shares to an acquiring company.




Question.2. Explain the term Acquisitions?


Answer:There’s only one real way to achieve massive growth literally overnight, and that’s by buying somebody else’s company. Acquisition has become one of the most popular ways to grow today. Since 1990, the annual number of mergers and acquisitions has doubled, meaning that this is the most popular era ever for growth by acquisition.


Companies choose to grow by acquiring others to increase market share, to gain access to promising new technologies, to achieve synergies in their operations, to tap well-developed distribution channels, to obtain control of undervalued assets, and a myriad of other reasons. But acquisition can be risky because many things can go wrong with even a well-laid plan to grow by acquiring: Cultures may clash, key employees may leave, synergies may fail to emerge, assets may be less valuable than perceived, and costs may skyrocket rather than fall. Still, perhaps because of the appeal of instant growth, acquisition is an increasingly common way






Question.3. Discuss the distinction between Mergers and Acquisitions?


Answer:Mergers and acquisitions are both aspects of strategic management, corporate finance and management dealing with the buying, selling, dividing and combining of different companies and similar entities that can help an enterprise grow rapidly in its sector or location of origin, or a new field or new location, without creating a subsidiary, other child entity or using a joint venture.


M&A can be defined as a type of restructuring in that they result in some entity reorganization with the aim to provide growth or positive value. Consolidation of an industry or sector occurs when widespread M&A activity concentrates the resources of many





Question.4. What are the benefits of the merger?


Answer:A merger occurs when two firms join together to form one. The new firm will have an increased market share, which reduces competition. This reduction in competition can be damaging to the public interest, but help the firm gain more profits.


However, mergers can give benefits to the public.


  1. Economies of scale: This occurs when a larger firm with increased output can reduce average costs. Lower average costs enable lower prices for consumers.


Different economies of scale include:
















(10 Marks)




Century Polyester, B K Birla Group company manufactures polyester partially oriented yarn (POY)polyester chips and nylon type cord fabric (NTCF). The production of Century Polyester takes place mainlyat Pune, mahad in India. Margins were under high pressure due to volatility in raw material prices andcompetition from low priced imports.


Profit margins in Century Polyester operation can be improved with the reduction in excise duty and stableraw material prices. But profit margins in NTCF were affected because of increase in Corpolactam prices,low priced Chinese imports and appreciation of the rupee. However, Century’s special interest in nylontextile yarn could increase its market share.


To copy with the increasing competition, the company is trying its level best to increase its operationalefficiencies value addition and product mix. They are focusing on energy conservation and modernization.


To increase its generative capacity, the company has installed 2 diesel generating sets of 6 MW each atPune. The NTCF capacity expansion of about 7500 tonnes per annum is on the verge of completion. Earliermost of the NTCF demand was met by Chinese imports due to less production rate in India. Estimatedinvestment for all these schemes is about Rs 280 crore.


Question.1. What were the major problems Century Polyester had?


Answer:Century Polyester, B K Birla Group company manufactures polyester partially oriented yarn (POY) polyester chips and nylon type cord fabric (NTCF). The production of Century Polyester takes place mainly at Pune, mahad in India. Margins were under high pressure due to volatility in raw material prices and competition from low priced imports.


Profit margins in Century Polyester operation can be improved with the reduction in excise duty and stable raw material prices. But profit margins in







Question.2. Suggest the remedies to solve the problem?


Answer:To copy with the increasing competition, the company is trying its level best to increase its operational efficiencies value addition and product mix. They are focusing on energy conservation and modernization.


The complete removal of the oligomers is not possible. However, they can be partly eliminated using speciality chemicals in dyeing, reduction clearing of dark/ heavy dark polyester fibre in acidic medium, proper finish having less affinity for the oligomers, and regular machine cleaning. Here are some things to remember:


  • Clean machine periodically
  • Use of high liquor ratio












Question.3. Why did they go for capacity expansion of NTCF?


Answer:To increase its generative capacity, the company has installed 2 diesel generating sets of 6 MW each at Pune. The NTCF capacity expansion of about 7500 tonnes per annum is on the verge of completion. Earlier most of the NTCF demand was met by Chinese imports due to less production rate in India. Estimated investment for all these schemes is about Rs 280 crore.


Small-Sized textile company, Century Enka, is a part of BK Birla Group. Cheap valuation, timely expansion, low debt and good dividend-paying record make Century Enka’s the stock an attractive buy. Investors with a one-year horizon can consider












Question.4. SWOT Analysis on Textile Industry in India explain?


Answer:Important Features of Indian textile industry

  1. India covers 61 percent of the international textile market.
  2. India covers 22 percent of the global market.
  3. India is known to be the third largest manufacturer of cotton across the globe.
  4. India claims to be the second largest manufacturer as well as provider of cotton yarn and textiles in the world.
  5. India holds around 25 percent share in the



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BK ID B1650



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.



  1. 1. Differentiate between Physical addresses and Logical addresses.


Answer:In simplest terms, an address generated by the CPU is known as a logical address. Logical addresses are also referred to as virtual addresses. From the perspective of a program that is running, an item seems to be located in the address provided by the logical address. Physical address (also called the real addresses) is the address seen by the memory unit and it allows accessing a particular memory cell in the main memory by the data bus.


The OSI model is a good place to start to learn






  1. 2. Describe about DWDM. Explain the components of a basic DWDM system


Answer:Short for Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing, an optical technology used to increase bandwidth over existing fiber optic backbones.


DWDM works by combining and transmitting multiple signals simultaneously at different wavelengths on the same fiber. In effect, one fiber is transformed into multiple virtual fibers. So, if you were to multiplex eight OC-48 signals into one fiber, you would increase the carrying capacity of that fiber from 2.5 Gb/s to 20 Gb/s. Currently,








  1. 3. Describe about Peak cell rate (PCR) and Sustained cell rate (SCR).


Answer: If a service (or application) wishes to use a broadband network (an ATM network in particular) to transport a particular kind of traffic, it must first inform the network about what kind of traffic is to be transported, and the performance requirements of that traffic. The application presents this information to the network in the form a traffic contract.









  1. 4. Describe the following:
  2. a) Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol


Answer:Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a routing protocol for Internet Protocol (IP) networks. It uses a link state routing algorithm and falls into the group of interior routing protocols, operating within a single autonomous system (AS). It is defined as OSPF Version 2 in RFC 2328 (1998) for IPv4. The updates for IPv6 are specified as OSPF Version 3 in RFC 5340 (2008).




  1. b) Broader Gateway Routing Protocol (BGP)

Answer: Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a standardized exterior gateway protocol designed to exchange routing and reachability information between autonomous systems (AS) on the Internet. The protocol is often classified as a path vector protocol but is sometimes also classed as a distance-vector routing







  1. 5. Write short notes on:


  1. a) Cryptography: Cryptography prior to the modern age was effectively synonymous with encryption, the conversion of information from a readable state to apparent nonsense. The originator of an encrypted message shared the decoding technique needed to recover the original information only with intended recipients


  1. b) Encryption:In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding messages or information in such a way that only authorized parties can read it. Encryption does not of itself prevent interception, but denies the message



  1. c) Decryption:Decryption is the reverse process to Encryption. Frequently, the same Cipher is used for both Encryption and Decryption. While Encryption creates a Ciphertext from a Plaintext, Decryption creates a Plaintext from a Ciphertext. The process of decoding data that has been encrypted into a secret format.




  1. d) Cryptanalysis: Cryptanalysis refers to the study of ciphers, ciphertext, or cryptosystems (that is, to secret code systems) with a view to finding weaknesses in them that will permit retrieval of the plaintext from the ciphertext, without necessarily knowing the key or the algorithm. This is known as breaking the cipher, ciphertext, or cryptosystem.


Cryptanalysis is the study of analyzing




  1. e) Cryptology:Cryptology is the mathematics, such as number theory, and the application of formulas and algorithms, that underpin cryptography and cryptanalysis. Since the cryptanalysis concepts are highly specialized and





  1. 6. Differentiate between Single server queue and Multi-server queue


Answer: Queueing theory is the mathematical study of waiting lines, or queues. In queueing theory a model is constructed so that queue lengths and waiting time can be predicted.Queueing theory is generally considered a branch of operations research because the results are often used when making business decisions about the resources needed to provide a service. Queueing theory has its origins in research by Agner Krarup Erlang when


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BK ID B0954


Q1. Write ten examples of what a technical writer writes.


Answer : Technical writing refers to a type of writing where the author outlines the details and operations of administrative, technical, mechanical, or scientific systems. The main goal of technical writing is to educate, direct, and give others the ability to use a certain system.


Forms of Technical Writing

Technical writing assignments normally take one of three forms:

  • End user documentation
  • Traditional technical writing
  • Technological marketing communications


Q2. Discuss what is primary audience and secondary audience.


Answer : Primary: Primary audience is the main body of viewers, which may also be known as the target audience. People who may be classed as primary audience would be Doctors, Teachers, Lawyers and others, whilst the secondary audience maybe people in careers such as Hairdressing, Sales Assistants, essentially common people who aren’t in the scale of C1 TO C3 of the demographic scale would also be mainly students.



Secondary audience: secondary audience are viewers who fall outside the demographic scale of C1 to C3 but still listens to the station,






Q3. Explain the following.


  1. Structural Clash

Answer : Most systems have a mix of dependent and non-dependent functions. Where there are dependencies, a numbered hierarchical structure for the user information is obvious.


Where the functions are non-dependent, a non-linear or horizontal structure makes more sense.


But on paper, you



  1. What is Information Chunk?

Answer : A chunk is a fragment of information which is used in many multimedia formats, such as PNG, IFF, MP3 and AVI.


Each chunk contains a header which indicates some parameters (e.g. the type of chunk, comments, size etc.) In the






  1. How do Chunks work?

Answer : Step 1: Start at the highest level.

Use a chunking strategy while determining the content hierarchy of a course. Determine how modules, lessons and topics will be organized into a logical and progressive order.


Start with large chunks of

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BK ID B1563



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.



  1. 1. Draw and explain different layers of Linux Operating System.


Answer:Conceptually, the Linux operating system is similar to an onion. It consists of many layers, one on top of the other. At the very core is the interface with the hardware. The operating system must know how to communicate with the hardware or nothing can get done. This is the most privileged aspect of the operating system.


Because it needs to access the hardware




  1. 2. What are run levels? Explain in detail.


Answer:Runlevel is a mode of operation in one of the computer operating systems that implement Unix System V-style initialization. Conventionally, seven runlevels exist, numbered from zero to six; though up to ten, from zero to nine[citation needed], may be used. S is sometimes used as a synonym for one of the levels. Only one runlevel is executed on startup; run levels are not executed one after another, i.e. either the runlevel 2, 3 or 4 is executed, not more of them sequentially or in any other order.



  1. 3. Describe the following:
  2. a) File encryption


Answer: File Encryption means providing security for files that reside on media, in a stored state. Those are files that are resting on our hard drives, usb drives or any other type of digital media storage. Those are files that are usually not meant to be sent through network, they are stored locally, being encrypted and temporarily



  1. b) Email encryption


Answer: Email encryption is encryption of email messages to protect the content from being read by other entities than the intended recipients. Email encryption may also include authentication. Email is prone to disclosure of information. Most emails are currently transmitted in the clear (not encrypted). By means of some available tools, persons other than the designated recipients can read the email contents. Email




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  1. Differentiate between Two-Tier client/server databases and Multi-tier client/server databases.

Answer: Two-Tier Architecture:


The two-tier is based on Client Server architecture. The two-tier architecture is like client server application. The direct communication takes place between client and server. There is no intermediate between client and server. Because of tight coupling a 2 tiered application will run faster.





  1. Explain the physical query plan operators. What is the significance of Iterators?


Answer: A plan represents how data flows from a child operator to a parent operator in the form of a tree structure. Query execution flow can be read from right to left and from top to bottom.

In this article we’ll discuss some common and important operators like Index seek/scan, Join (Nested, Merge, and Hash), etc., which are useful to interpret a graphical execution plan and troubleshoot any performance issue due to a





  1. Differentiate between Serialisability and Recoverability.


Answer: Serializability


Serializability is the classical concurrency scheme. This helps to ensures that a schedule with regard to performing executing concurrent transactions is equivalent to one that executes the transactions serially in some order. It assumes that all accesses






  1. Discuss about Parallel query processing. How parallel-execution works?

Answer: When Oracle runs SQL statements in parallel, multiple processes work together simultaneously to run a single SQL statement. By dividing the work necessary to run a statement among multiple processes, Oracle can run the statement more quickly than if only a single process ran it. This is called parallel execution or parallel processing.


Parallel execution dramatically reduces response time for data-intensive operations on large databases typically associated with decision support systems (DSS) and data warehouses. Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP), clustered systems, and




  1. Differentiate between homogeneous and heterogeneous Database.


Answer: A DDBMS may be classified as homogeneous or heterogeneous. In a homogeneous system, all sites use the same DBMS product. In a heterogeneous system, sites may run different DBMS products, which need not be based on the same underlying data model, and so the system may be composed of relational, network, hierarchical and object-oriented DBMSs.




Homogeneous systems are much easier to design and






  1. Write short notes on ODMG standards. What are the various components of ODMG-93?


Answer: The ODMG standard builds upon the existing OMG, SQL-92, INCITS (formerly ANSI) programming language standards, and JavaSoft’s Java specification to define a framework for application portability between compliant data storage products. The standard’s functional components include an Object Model, an Object Definition Language, an Object Query Language, and Language Bindings to Java, C++, and Smalltalk.


The two primary benefits of the ODMG


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MCA3010 –Financial Management and Accounting


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Masters in Computer Application (MCA) – Semester 3


MCA3010 –Financial Management and Accounting


4 Credits (Book ID: B1624)

(60 Marks)


Answer All the Questions. Each question carries equal marks. (6 x 10 = 60)


  1. Explain the process involved in accounting. What are the objectives of accounting?

Answer :As implied earlier, today’s electronic accounting systems tend to obscure the traditional forms of the accounting cycle. Nevertheless, the same basic process that bookkeepers and accountants used to perform by hand are present in today’s accounting software.




An accounting cycle is a complete sequence



  1. Briefly explain the role of management accounting. Also describe the functions of management accounting.

Answer : Management accounting is an internal business function that includes the recording and reporting of a company’s financial transactions. The accounting department also supports management in different business operations, providing analysis and support for different decisions and investments.

Financial Reporting

Management accountants work at the





  1. What is fund flow analysis? What are the objectives of analysing flow of fund?

Answer : Funds flow statement is an important financial tool, which analyze the changes in financial position of a firm showing the sources and applications of its funds. It provides useful information about the firm’s operating, financing and investing activities during a particular period. The following points highlight the importance of funds flow statement.


  1. Funds flow statement helps in identifying the change in level of current assets investment and current liabilities financing.



  1. What is cash flow statement and how is the cash flow statement subdivided?


Answer : Complementing the balance sheet and income statement, the cash flowstatement (CFS), a mandatory part of a company’s financial reports since1987, records the amounts of cash and cash equivalents entering andleaving a company. The CFS allows investors to understand how acompany’s operations are running, where its money is coming from, andhow it is being spent. Here you will learn how the CFS is structured andhow to use it as




  1. What are the merits of budgets?


Answer : Define goals and objectives

Align corporate goals with regards to markets, sales levels, margins, manning, cost levels and capital investment with your budgets.

Think about and plan for the future.

Compels management to think about the future. Management should look ahead and set out plans for each business unit, anticipating change



  1. Describe the essential features of budgetary control.


Answer : There are two types of control, namely budgetary and financial. This chapter concentrates on budgetary control only. This is because financial control was covered in detail in chapters one and two. Budgetary control is defined by the Institute of Cost and Management Accountants (CIMA) as:


“The establishment of budgets relating the


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PROGRAM Master of Science in Information Technology(MSc IT)Revised Fall 2011
BK ID B1547


Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.


Q1. Describe the following protocols:


  1. a) IP

Answer : The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries. Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet.


IP has the task of delivering packets from the source host to the destination host solely based on the IP addresses in the packet headers. For this purpose, IP defines packet structures that encapsulate the data to be delivered. It also defines addressing methods that are used to label the datagram with source and destination information.



  1. b) HTTP

Answer: The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. It is a generic, stateless, protocol which can be used for many tasks beyond its use for hypertext, such as name servers and distributed object management systems, through extension of its request methods, error codes and headers. A feature of HTTP is the typing and negotiation of data representation, allowing systems to be built independently of the data being transferred.

HTTP functions as a








  1. c) FTP

Answer: FTP is a client-server protocol that relies on two communications channels between client and server: a command channel for controlling the conversation and a data channel for transmitting file content. Clients initiate conversations with servers by requesting to download a file. Using FTP, a client can upload, download,






  1. d) SMTP


Answer: SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is a TCP/IP protocol used in sending and receiving e-mail. However, since it is limited in its ability to queue messages at the receiving end, it is usually used with one of two other protocols, POP3 or IMAP, that let the user save messages in a server mailbox and download them periodically from the server. In other words, users typically use a program




Q2. a) What are the features of XML? Explain.

  1. b) Describe XML declaration


Answer:The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. It is classified as an extensible language because it allows its users to define their own elements. Its primary purpose is to facilitate the sharing of structured data across different information systems, particularly via the Internet. It is used both to encode documents and serialize data.

XML is a framework for defining



  1. 3. List and explain the Components of XML processor.


Answer: When XML is processed, usually there is more to it than one input, on transform, and one output. Rarely is the input in exactly the right format, and rarely can the output be put right where it belongs. And seldom is the transformation which does not require lookups or including data from other sources.


  • XML Processing Control Structures: In addition to being able to route queries by Path, conditions can be forced to emit warnings or even to stop the pipeline with an error. This is valuable where you want to validate some data flowing into or out of steps.
  • XML Processing with Validates: Both Salonika



Q4. Explain how to fetch data from XML to HTML. Give an example


Answer: It is possible to design a HTML form structure such that it embeds all data content and structure of some XML data such that the XML data are displayed in the fields of the HTML form. The HTML form and the XML data are then logically equivalent in terms of the contents of the XML data. It is then possible to convert automatically between them from a web browser with a single program for any XML data.




  1. 5. Describe five different categories of PHP Operators.


Answer:Operators are a special type of symbols, which are used for calculation and comparison in a programming language. Operators are also used to operate on values. There are six types operators in PHP, which are as follows:


Arithmetic Operators: These operators are used





  1. 6. Write short note on ASP.

Answer:ASP is also an abbreviation for application service provider.


An Active Server Page (ASP) is an HTML page that includes one or more scripts (small embedded programs) that are processed on a Microsoft Web server before the page is sent to the user. An ASP is somewhat similar to a server-side include or a common gateway interface (CGI) application in that all involve programs that run on the server, usually tailoring a page for the user. Typically, the script in the Web page at the server uses input received as the result of the user’s request for the page to access data from a database and then builds or customizes the page on the fly before sending it to the requestor.


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MCA5042- Cryptography and Network Security

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SUBJECT CODE & NAME MCA5042- Cryptography and Network Security
BK ID B2069



Answer all the Questions


Question.1. Define computer security. Explain the important objectives of computer security.


Answer:Computer security, also known as cybersecurity or IT security, is the protection of information systems from theft or damage to the hardware, the software, and to the information on them, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide. It includes controlling physical access to the hardware, as well as protecting against harm that may come via network access, data and code injection,and due to malpractice by operators, whether intentional, accidental, or due to them being tricked into deviating from secure procedures.


The field is of growing importance due to the



Question.2. Explain Feistel Cipher.


Answer:In cryptography, a Feistel cipher is a symmetric structure used in the construction of block ciphers, named after the German-born physicist and cryptographer Horst Feistel who did pioneering research while working for IBM (USA); it is also commonly known as a Feistel network. A large proportion of block ciphers use the scheme, including the Data Encryption Standard (DES). The Feistel structure has the advantage that encryption and decryption operations are very similar, even identical in some cases, requiring only a reversal of the key schedule. Therefore the size of the code or circuitry required to implement such a




Question.3. Explain the following.


(a) Asymmetric Keys


Answer:An asymmetric algorithm, as outlined in the Diffie-Hellman paper, is a trap door or one-way function. Such a function is easy to perform in one direction, but difficult or impossible to reverse. For example, it is easy to compute the product of two given numbers, but it is computationally much harder to find the two factors given only their product. Given both the product and one of the




(b) Public Key Certificate


Answer:Asymmetric cryptography or public-key cryptography is cryptography in which a pair of keys is used to encrypt and decrypt a message so that it arrives securely. Initially, a network user receives a public and private key pair from a certificate authority. Any other user who wants to send an encrypted



(c) Public Key (Asymmetric) Cryptographic Algorithm


Answer:Public-key cryptography refers to a set of cryptographic algorithms that are based on mathematical problems that currently admit no efficient solution — particularly those inherent in certain integer factorization, discrete logarithm, and elliptic curve relationships. It is computationally easy for a user to




(d) Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)


Answer:A public key infrastructure (PKI) is a set of hardware, software, people, policies, and procedures needed to create, manage, distribute, use, store, and revoke digital certificates and manage






Question.4. (a) Explain digital signature.


Answer: A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of a digital message or documents. A valid digital signature gives a recipient reason to believe that the message was created by a known sender, that the sender cannot deny having sent the message (authentication and non-repudiation), and that the message was not altered in transit (integrity). Digital signatures are commonly used for software distribution, financial transactions, and in other cases where it is important to detect forgery or tampering.




(b) Explain the different types of attacks on digital signatures.


Answer:In their foundational paper, Goldwasser, Micali, and Rivest lay out a hierarchy of attack models against digital signatures:


  • In a key-only attack, the attacker is only given the public verification key.
  • In a known message attack, the attacker is given valid signatures for a variety of messages known by the attacker but not chosen by the attacker.
  • In an adaptive chosen



Question.5. Explain the Benefits of IP security.


Answer:Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) is a framework of open standards for ensuring private, secure communications over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, through the use of cryptographic security services. IPSec is a suite of cryptography-based protection services and security protocols. Because it requires no changes to programs or protocols, you can easily deploy IPSec for existing networks.


The driving force for the acceptance and deployment of secure IP is the need for business and government users to connect their



Question.6. Define the following terms used in the IEEE 802.11 standard.


(a) Access point (AP)


Answer:In computer networking, a wireless access point (WAP) is a networking hardware device that allows wireless devices to connect to a wired network using Wi-Fi, or related standards. The AP usually connects to a router (via a wired network) as a standalone device, but it can also be an integral component of the router itself. An AP is differentiated from a hotspot, which is the physical space where




(b) Basic service set (BSS)


Answer: Basic Service Set is a component of the IEEE 802.11 WLAN architecture. This network architecture is built around a Basic Service Set (BSS), which is actually a set of STAs (the component that connects to the wireless medium such as a network adapter or NIC) that communicate with each other. When one access



(c) Coordination function


Answer:Distributed coordination function (DCF) is the fundamental MAC technique of the IEEE 802.11 based WLAN standard. DCF employs a CSMA/CA with binary exponential backoff algorithm.





(d) Distribution system (DS)


Answer:A wireless distribution system (WDS) is a system enabling the wireless interconnection of access points in an IEEE 802.11 network. It allows a wireless network to be expanded using multiple access points


(e) Extended service set (ESS)


Answer:An extended service set (ESS) is one or more interconnected basic service sets (BSSs) and their associated



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Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.


Q.1 Describe about Wireless Communication. Explain its advantages.

Answer: – Wireless communication is the transfer of information between two or more points that are not connected by an electrical conductor. The most common wireless technologies use radio. With radio waves distances can be short, such as a few meters for television or as far as thousands or even millions of kilometers for deep-space radio communications. It encompasses various types of fixed, mobile, and portable applications, including two-way radios, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and wireless networking. Other examples of


Q2. Describe the concepts of cell splitting and frequency reuse in cellular networks.

Answer: The concept of Cell Splitting is quite self explanatory by its name itself. Cell splitting means to split up cells into smaller cells. The process of cell splitting is used to expand the capacity (number of channels) of a mobile communication system. As a network grows, a quite large number of mobile users in an area come into picture. Consider the following scenario.

There are 100 people in a specific area. All of them owns a mobile phone (MS) and are quite comfortable to communicate with each other. So, a provision for all of them to mutually communicate must be made. As there are only 100 users, a single base station (BS) is built in the middle of the area and all these users’ MS are connected to it. All these 100 users now come under the coverage area of a single base station. This coverage area is called a cell. This is shown


Q.3 Differentiate between BSC and MSC protocols

Answer: – BSC Protocols: After the information is passed from the BTS to the BSC, a different set of interfaces is used. The Abis interface is used between the BTS and BSC. At this level, the radio resources at the lower portion of Layer 3 are changed from the RR to the Base Transceiver Station Management (BTSM). The BTS management layer is a relay function at the BTS to the BSC.

The RR protocols are responsible for the allocation and reallocation of traffic channels between the MS and the BTS. These services include controlling the initial access to the system, paging for MT calls, the handover of calls between cell sites, power control, and call termination. The RR protocols provide the procedures for the use, allocation, reallocation, and release of the GSM channels. The BSC still has some radio resource management in place for the frequency coordination, frequency allocation, and the management of the overall network layer for the Layer 2



Q.4 What is CDMA? Explain the history of CDMA.

Answer: – CDMA:- Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a channel access method  used by various radio  communication technologies.CDMA is an example of multiple access , which is where several transmitters can send information simultaneously over a single communication channel. This allows several users to share a band of frequencies (see bandwidth). To permit this to be achieved without undue interference between the users, CDMA employs spread-spectrum  technology and a special coding scheme (where each transmitter is assigned a code).

CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) CDMA takes an entirely different approach from GSM/TDMA. CDMA spreads data out over the channel after the


Q.5 Explain the following:

  1. a) A5 algorithm for encryption
  2. b) A8 algorithm for key generation

Answer: – A5 algorithm for encryption:-A5 is used in Europe and the United States. A5was a deliberate weakening of the algorithm for certain export regions.  A5 was developed in 1987, when GSM was not yet considered for use outside Europe, and A5 was developed in 1989. Though both were initially kept secret, the general design was leaked in 1994 and the algorithms were entirely reverse engineered in 1999 by Marc Briceno from a GSM telephone. In 2000, around 130 million GSM customers relied on A5 to protect the confidentiality of their voice


A8 algorithm for key generation

This algorithm is used in conjunction with Ki the authentication key and RAND  (Random Number) to generate Kc  (Cipher Key ). This is used with A5/X  to cipher the data stream between the MS  (Mobile Station ) and the GSM  network. A variety of security algorithms are used to provide authentication, cipher key generation, integrity and radio link privacy to users on mobile networks



Q.6 List and explain the different path loss models

Answer:- Path loss models:- Path loss (or path attenuation) is the reduction in power density (attenuation ) of an electromagnetic wave  as it propagates through space. Path loss is a major component in the analysis and design of the link budget of a telecommunication system.


This term is commonly used in wireless communications and signal  propagation . Path loss may be due to many effects, such as free-space loss , refraction , diffraction , reflection , aperture -medium  coupling loss , and absorption . Path loss is also

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