BT9302, Human Computer Interface

[fall 2016 ]

ASSIGNMENT

PROGRAM                                                   BSc IT

SEMESTER                                                  SIXTH

SUBJECT CODE & NAME       BT9302, Human Computer Interface

CREDIT                                                        4

BK ID                                                             B1364

MAX. MARKS                                             60

Answer all the questions

Ques 1 List all the principles of designing graphical user interface. Explain any eight of them.

Ans Principles of Graphical User Interface

Graphical user interfaces (GUIs) have become the user interface of choice. Yet despite the GUI’s popularity, surprisingly few programs exhibit good interface design. Moreover, finding information explaining what constitutes a good and intuitive interface is exceedingly difficult. This section,

Ques 2 Explain the phases in determining basic business functions.

Ans In order to determine basic business functions one as know basic models.Understanding these modelsis necessary for designing the interface

Ques 3 Explain the uses of toolbars and message boxes in designing windows.

Ans Windows Components

Windows are enclosed, rectangular areas of the display screen that can contain text, graphics and widgets. They are the basic element in which Graphical user interface (GUI) applications are displayed

Ques 4 Explain Goal-Operation-Methods-Selections (GOMS) user interface design approach. List advantages and disadvantages of it.

Ans GOMS is a family of user interface modeling techniques. Goals, Operators, Methods and Selection rules are Input for this approach. This approach is used various qualitative and quantitative measures,

Ques 5 Write short notes on layout of controls.

Answer:

Poorly laid out dialog boxes cause confusion and distract users from completing their tasks. Organisation is thus critical to maximizing usability.

There are four general categories of control: Imperative, Selection, Entry, and Display.

1) Imperative controls:

  1. Explain HCI Applications for Aiding Children with Mental Disorders.

Answer:

HCI Applications for Aiding Children with Mental Disorders:

HCI is used in aiding children with mental disorders. We look at autism and bipolar disorder in particular. We believe HCI is promising here because it provides the possibility of capturing,

BCA 5041 – COMPILER DESIGN

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DRIVE

FALL 2016

PROGRAM

BACHELOR OF COMPUTER APPLICATION

SEMESTER

5

SUBJECT CODE & NAME

BCA 5041 – COMPILER DESIGN

1 Explain various tasks performed by a compiler.

Answer: Compilers are an essential part of a computer programmer’s toolkit. A compiler turns a plain text file containing code into a program that can be run.

A common misconception is that computers understand code. This is not true. Computers only

2 What is finite automata? What is deterministic and nondeterministic finite automata?

Answer: A finite automaton (FA) is a simple idealized machine used to recognize patterns within input taken from some character set (or alphabet) C. The job of an FA is to accept or reject an input depending on whether the pattern defined by the FA occurs in the input. A finite automaton consists of: a finite

3 What do you mean by context free grammar? Explain with an example.

Answer: A context-free grammar basically consists of a finite set of grammar rules. In order to define grammar rules, we assume that we have two kinds of symbols: the terminals, which are thesymbols of the alphabet underlying the languages under consideration, and the nonterminals, which behave like variables ranging over strings of terminals. A rule is of the form A → α, where A is a single nonterminal, and the

4 Explain Storage Allocation Strategies based on the division of run time storage with their limitations.

Answer: Different ways to allocate objects

Static allocation – allocates storage at compile time

Stack allocation – manages run time storage as stack

Heap

5 Explain how Direct Acyclic Graph (DAG) is represented for Basic Blocks with example.

Answer: Acyclic graph is defined as a graph with no path and starts and ends at the same vertex. An acyclic undirected graphic is like a tree. Directed Acyclic graph (DAG) is a directed graph with no path that startsand

6Explain the following optimization techniques

  1. a) Loop invariant code motion
  2. b) Partial redundancy elimination

Answer: a) Loop invariant code motion

Loop-Invariant code motion is one interesting form of partial redundancyelimination (PRE) whose purpose it is to find code in a loop body that producesthe same value in every iteration of the loop. An expression is loopinvariant if its value does not change while running the loop. This code canbe moved out of the loop so that it is not computed over and over again,which would be a waste of

MIT4023– Real Time Operating Systems

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PROGRAM

Master of Science in Information Technology(MSc IT)

SEMESTER

4

SUBJECT CODE & NAME

MIT4023– Real Time Operating Systems

Qus:1 What is RTOS? What are its requirements?

Answer: A real-time system is one whose correctness involves both the logical correctness of outputs and their timeliness. An embedded system is a specific real-time computer system. Earlier embedded systems were designed for specialized applications but now reconfigurable and programmable embedded systems are used. Some examples of embedded systems are: the microprocessor

Qus:2 a) State RISC characteristics.

  1. b) Why memory protection is necessary?

Answer: a) State RISC characteristics.

A real time system is often implemented on custom hardware that isspecifically designed and developed for the purpose. For example a cell phone does not use traditional microprocessors. Cell phones use processors which are tiny, supporting only those processing capabilities that are really for cell phone operation and specifically designed to be power

Qus:3 Briefly describe the followings:

(a) DROL

(b) RTC++

(c) FLEX

Answer:

(a) DROL

DROL is an object-oriented language which extends the general purpose Language C++ for distributed real-time applications. DROL is based on the idea of distributed real-time objects which have asynchronous message passing. A distributed real-time object has the properties of best effort and least suffering. Best effort is defined as a scheduling policy in which two

Qus:4 Describe the basic design principles in ROTS environment.

Answer: An embedded system with a single CPU can run only one process at an instance. The process may be either an ISR, kernel function or a task. An RTOS use in embedded system provides the following.

  1. The user threads to run in kernel space(to execute fast).
  2. Effective handling of ISRs, device drivers, tasks or threads and enabling and disabling of

Qus:5 Describe the following disk scheduling algorithms:

(a) Elevator algorithm

(b) D-SCAN and FD-SCAN algorithm

Answer: (a) Elevator algorithm

Classical disk scheduling schemes attempt to minimize the average seek distance. For example, in the elevator algorithm, the disk head is in either an inward-seeking phase or an outward-seeking phase. While seeking inward, it services any requests it passes until there are no

Qus:6 Explain Cryptography. Describe the components of Cryptography with a neat labeled diagram.

Answer: Cryptography, a word with Greek origins, means “Secret Writing”. However, we use the term to refer to the science and art of transforming messages to make them secure and immune to attacks.

The original

MIT4024– Customer Relationship Management

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PROGRAM

Master of Science in Information Technology(MSc IT)

SEMESTER

FOURTH

SUBJECT CODE & NAME

MIT4024– Customer Relationship Management

Qus:1 What is CRM? Describe its different types.

Answer: Defining CRM is a bit ironic because it is not very difficult to define but at the same time there is no single universal definition for this term. Actually, there are many definitions due to the presence of many CRM software vendors and system integrators in the IT industry. However,

Qus:2a) Write the benefits of CRM technology for front office.

  1. b) State the CRM technology components and explain any one.

Answer: a) Write the benefits of CRM technology for front office.

The front office functioning group has direct contact with customers. The function of this group includes marketing, sales, and after-sales services. It deals with textual data, that is, the information about the relationship between customers and companies.

The

Qus:3 List and explain the different ways to synchronize data.

Answer: Portable devices synchronize data in three different ways. Figure 4.1 depicts the various types of data

Qus:4 List and briefly describe the elements that are essential for a successful CIC.

Answer: A successful CIC is accomplished only if the following conditions are sustained:

 Maintain customer loyalty – Gradually, companies realized that the best way to retain customers is through positive relationship management and outstanding customer service. An important element

Qus:5 What are the basic steps in project planning?

Answer: This phase involves planning for the project which is done after analyzing all the requirements and specifications thoroughly. It involves creating a suite of planning documents to help guide the team throughout the project.

The following steps are followed in project planning:

  1. Breaking up of the requirement specifications into smaller subtasks or activities
  2. Sequencing of activities and identifying activities that can be implemented at the same time

Qus:6 What are the three sub processes of CRM? Explain.

Answer: CRM consists of three sub processes. They are:

 Marketing process

 Sales process

MIT4033- Wireless and Mobile Communication

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PROGRAM

Master of Science in Information Technology (MSc IT)

SEMESTER

FOURTH

SUBJECT CODE & NAME

MIT4033- Wireless and Mobile Communication

Qus:1 Write a short note on different generations of wireless network.

Answer: The wireless communication network has undergone lot of evolution from the day of its introduction. To study these history and evolution it is categories as different generations. Every generation carries the features that are available and supported by electronic devices of

Qus:2 Describe the concepts of followings:

(a) cell splitting

(b) frequency reuse in cellular networks

Answer: (a)cell splitting

This method to increase the capacity of users is used in a network when the size of each cell is same and the density of users on different. If the size of the cell is large, then the transmitted radio wave must be of higher energy (called strength of the signal) to reach the border of the cell

Qus:3 Describe BSC and MSC protocols.

Answer: BSC protocols Once the information is communicated from the BTS to the BSC, the Abisinterface is used to communicate further the information between the BT Sand BSC. At this level, the radio resources at the lower portion of Layer 3are handled by the Base Transceiver Station Management (BTSM) protocol rather than the RR protocol. The BTSM layer acts as a

Qus:4 List and explain the different methods of speech coding.

Answer: There are three different speech coding methods. They are:

  1. a) Waveform coding
  2. b) Source coding and
  3. c) Hybrid coding
  4. a) Waveform coding

This approximates the speech signal as waveform. In this class of coding, the objective is to minimize a criterion which measures the dissimilarity between the original and the reconstructed

Qus:5 Explain the following with context to GSM security:

  1. a) A5 algorithm for encryption
  2. b) A8 algorithm for key generation

Answer: GSM encryption is the means by which phone conversations on networks using GSM are scrambled, such that they cannot be descrambled and intercepted by others.

Basically 3

Qus:6What is Wimax? Discuss it’s architecture with suitable diagram.

Answer: WiMAX, which stands for worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, was designed by the WiMAX forum and standardized as IEEE 802.16.

WiMAX are being classified as a metropolitan area network (MAN). WiMAX is a telecommunications protocol that provides fixed and mobile Internet access. Two version of WiMAX are as

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MB0053 –International Business Management

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE WINTER 2016
PROGRAM Master of Business Administration- MBA
SEMESTER Semester 4
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MB0053 –International Business Management
BK ID B1724
CREDITS AND MARKS 4 CREDITS AND 60 MARKS

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

 

Question. 1. Write down the difference between international Vs global business? And what are the benefits of globalization?

 

Answer:‘Global Strategy’ is a shortened term that covers three areas: global, multinational and international strategies. Essentially, these three areas refer to those strategies designed to enable an organisation to achieve its objective of international expansion.

 

In developing ‘global strategy’, it is useful to

 

 

 

Question. 2. Elaborate in detail comparative study on cultures of Japan, China, Brazil and France.

 

Answer:America, being one of the first cultures to build the dynamic of change into it, greatly values progress. Due to capitalism’s boom / bust cycles, the people seek economic stability and security. A job is a major form of identity in a pluralistic society so workers particularly fear unemployment.

 

Efficiency and productivity are valued as the key to a constantly rising standard of living.

 

Applied technology and innovation fosters change that can destroy older industries at a startling rate.

 

 

 

 

 

Question. 3. Write a short note on Advantages of foreign direct investment and types of foreign direct investment.

 

Answer:Foreign direct investment (FDI) is made into a business or a sector by an individual or a company from another country. It is different from portfolio investment, which is made more indirectly into another country’s economy by using financial instruments, such as bonds and stocks.

 

There are various levels and forms of foreign direct investment, depending on the type of companies involved and the reasons for investment. A foreign direct investor

 

 

 

Question. 4. What are the key objectives and function of World Trade organization?

 

Answer:The WTO has nearly 153 members accounting for over 97% of world trade. Around 30 others are negotiating membership. Decisions are made by the entire membership. This is typically by consensus.

 

A majority vote is also possible but it has never been used in the WTO and was extremely rare under the WTO’s predecessor, GATT. The WTO’s agreements have been ratified in all members’ parliaments.

 

The WTO’s top level decision-making body is the

 

 

 

 

Question. 5. Explain in detail about international regulatory Bodies.

                                                                                                                                             

Answer:International regulation is regulation that occurs at the international level, often exercised by international organizations. An advantage of international regulation is that it allows localities and the individuals in them to be held accountable for the impact their actions (e.g. pollution) have on other localities.

 

 

 

 

 

Question. 6. What are the various export promotion schemes offered by government in order to promote export from the country?

 

Answer:After the economic reforms of 1991-92, liberalization of external trade, elimination of duties on imports of information technology products, relaxation of controls on both inward and outward investments and foreign exchange and the fiscal measures taken by the Government of India and the individual State Governments specifically for IT and ITES

 

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MB0052- Strategic Management and Business Policy

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE WINTER 2016
PROGRAM/SEMESTER MBADS/ MBAFLEX/ MBAHCSN3/ MBA – SEM 4PGDBMN/ PGDENMN/ PGDFMN/ PGDHRMN/ PGDHSMN/ PGDIB/ PGDISMN/ PGDMMN/ PGDOMN/ PGDPMN/PGDROMN/ PGDSCMN/ PGDTQMN – SEM 2
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MB0052- Strategic Management and Business Policy
BK ID B1699
CREDITS AND MARKS 4 CREDITS AND 60 MARKS

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

 

Question.1. Briefly discuss concept of strategy? Explain the various levels of strategy in an organization.

 

Answer:Strategy involves the action plan of a company for building competitive advantage and increasing its triple bottom line over the long-term. The action plan relates to achieving the economic, social, and environmental performance objectives; in essence, it helps bridge the gap between the long-term vision and short-term decisions.

Strategic Management

 

Strategic management is the process of building capabilities that allow a firm to create value for customers, shareholders, and society while

 

 

 

 

Question.2. How strategic planning and strategic management are interrelated to each other? Which comes first?

 

Answer:Strategic planning is an organizational management activity that is used to set priorities, focus energy and resources, strengthen operations, ensure that employees and other stakeholders are working toward common goals, establish agreement around intended outcomes/results, and assess and adjust the organization’s direction in response to a changing environment. It is a disciplined effort that produces fundamental decisions and actions that shape and guide what an organization is, who it serves, what it does, and why it

 

 

 

Question.3. What is a mission statement? Differentiate between a mission statement and vision statement.

 

Answer:The Mission Statement concentrates on the present; it defines the customer(s), critical processes and it informs you about the desired level of performance.  The Vision Statement focuses on the future; it is a source of inspiration and motivation. Often it describes not just the future of the organization but the future of the industry or society in which the organization hopes to effect change.

 

Each statement—a mission statement, a vision statement and a values statement—has its own distinct function in the strategic planning

 

 

 

Question.4. What is SWOT analysis in terms of Internal & External Analysis? Explain SWOT analysis in the form of a matrix?

 

Answer:SWOT analysis (alternatively SWOT matrix) is an acronym for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats—and is a structured planning method that evaluates those four elements of a project or business venture. A SWOT analysis can be carried out for a company, product, place, industry, or person. It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieve that objective. Some authors credit SWOT to

 

 

 

 

Question.5. Define corporate turnaround? Distinguish between surgical and nonsurgical turnaround. Explain with some examples?

 

Answer:A corporate restructuring or turnaround may be simply defined as a company’s existence is threatened as it moves from economic performance to decline or zone of insolvency. The decline or bankruptcy may take several years, however when extreme events take place, a shorter time frame may put the enterprise into peril.

 

 

 

Question.6. What are the major characteristics of an effective strategy evaluation system? Analyze these characteristics.

 

Answer:Strategy Evaluation is as significant as strategy formulation because it throws light on the efficiency and effectiveness of the comprehensive plans in achieving the desired results. The managers can also assess the appropriateness of the current strategy in todays dynamic world with socio-economic, political and technological innovations. Strategic Evaluation is the final phase of strategic management.

 

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OM0018 – TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE WINTER 2016
PROGRAM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA)
SEMESTER IV
SUBJECT CODE & NAME OM0018 – TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT
BK ID B1979
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

 

Question.1. Describe the concept of technology management.

Explain the various stages of strategic technology management system (STMS).

 

Answer:Technology management is set of management disciplines that allows organizations to manage their technological fundamentals to create competitive advantage. Typical concepts used in technology management are:

 

  • Technology strategy (a logic or role of technology in organization),
  • Technology forecasting (identification of possible relevant technologies for the organization, possibly through technology scouting),

 

 

 

Question.2. Define technological innovation.

Explain the different types of innovation on the basis of flexibility and in terms of offerings.

 

Answer:The technological innovation system is a concept developed within the scientific field of innovation studies which serves to explain the nature and rate of technological change. A Technological Innovation System can be defined as ‘a

 

 

 

Question.3. Briefly explain the guiding principles of technology management.

 

Answer:Technology management is set of management disciplines that allows organizations to manage their technological fundamentals to create competitive advantage. Typical concepts used in technology management are:

 

  • Technology strategy (a logic or role of technology in organization),
  • Technology forecasting (identification of possible relevant technologies for the organization, possibly through technology scouting),
  • Technology roadmap (mapping technologies to business and market needs), and
  • Technology project portfolio (a set of projects under

 

 

 

Question.4. With a neat diagram, explain the various stages of technology life cycle.

 

Answer:The technology life-cycle (TLC) describes the commercial gain of a product through the expense of research and development phase, and the financial return during its “vital life”. Some technologies, such as steel, paper or cement manufacturing, have a long lifespan (with minor variations in technology incorporated with time) whilst in other cases, such as electronic or pharmaceutical products, the lifespan may be quite short.

 

 

 

 

 

Question.5. a. Define technology transfer. Explain the steps involved in technology transfer process.

 

Answer:Technology transfer, also called transfer of technology (TOT), is the process of transferring skills, knowledge, technologies, methods of manufacturing, samples of manufacturing and facilities among governments or universities and other institutions to ensure that scientific and technological developments are accessible to a wider range of users who can then further develop and exploit the technology into new products, processes, applications, materials or services. It is closely related to (and may arguably be considered a subset of) knowledge transfer. Horizontal transfer is the movement of technologies from one area to another

 

 

 

  1. Explain the major categories of technology transfer

 

Answer:According to Carayannis et al., technology transfer usually involves some source of technology, created and owned by a group which possess specialized technical skills; this group then transfers the technology to a target group of

 

 

 

 

Question.6. Explain the technological impacts on different aspects of society.

 

Answer:Technology society and life or technology and culture refers to cyclical co-dependence, co-influence, and co-production of technology and society upon the other (technology upon culture, and vice versa). This synergistic relationship occurred from the dawn of humankind, with the invention of simple tools and continues into modern technologies such as the printing press and computers. The academic discipline studying the impacts of science, technology, and society, and vice versa is called science and technology studies.

 

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OM 0017 – ADVANCED PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE WINTER 2016
PROGRAM MBA
SEMESTER IV
SUBJECT CODE & NAME OM 0017 – ADVANCED PRODUCTION PLANNING ANDCONTROL
BK ID B2010
Credit & Marks 4 CREDIT, 60 MARKS

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

Question.1. Explain Various Functions of Production Planning and Control.

Production planning and Control department is one of the important department for the apparel manufacturing company. In the context of the apparel manufacturing primary roles of the Production Planning and Control (PPC) department has been listed below. Each functions has been explained briefly just overview about the task. To know details about the task read related articles.

 

Job or Task Scheduling: Preparation of time and action calendar for each order from order receiving to shipment

 

Question.2. Explain the concept of Master Schedule. Also define the Characteristics of the master schedule.

 

Answer: A master production schedule (MPS) is a plan for individual commodities to be produced in each time period such as production, staffing, inventory, etc. It is usually linked to manufacturing where the plan indicates when and how much of each product will be demanded. This plan quantifies significant processes, parts, and other resources in order to optimize production, to identify bottlenecks, and to anticipate needs and completed goods. Since an MPS drives much factory activity, its accuracy and viability dramatically affect profitability. Typical MPS’s are created by software with user tweaking.

 

  • Main Features of Master Scheduling

Discrete and Repetitive Question.3. Define the various steps of VA.

                                                    

Answer:There are eight distinct steps that most claims for disability compensation follow. These phases may vary in time depending on the complexity of the claim, the amount of evidence that must be gathered to support the claims, and the type of evidence. You are strongly encouraged to submit as much evidence as possible with your claim to help minimize processing time. The eight steps of claims processing are as follows:

 

 

 

Question.4. Write Short notes on

 

  1. Hybrid 1: MRP with lean principles

 

Answer:MRP as either Material Requirements Planning or Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II) has been around for nearly 30 years. For a good reason, people ask, what are the advantages and what are the disadvantages of MRP. Still, as one of the predominant methodologies in organizing inventory and production planning it surely has its benefits and drawbacks.

 

As with any methodological approach to management, the key advantage is that by consistently following it, you can

 

 

 

  1. Hybrid 2: Kanban with MRP planning

 

Answer:In conventional MRP procedures, production quantities and dates are calculated in accordance with actual customer/planned independent requirements and the required quantity and dates of the components are calculated by exploding the bill of material. The production quantities can be compiled for various requirements. The creation of lot sizes is based on the selected lot sizing procedure. In each production level, the

 

 

 

  1. Hybrid 3: MRP for capacity and long lead time

 

Answer:The planning process time-phases material requirements and expresses future demand, supply, and inventories by time period. Time-phasing delays release of orders for components until they are needed and offsets the requirements by item lead time (lead time offset). Oracle Master Scheduling/MRP and Supply Chain Planning plans to the exact date of demand, although some reports and inquiries show requirements bucketed by weeks or months.

 

 

 

 

  1. Hybrid 4: Pull system with spike control

 

Answer:The pull inventory control system begins with a customer’s order. With this strategy, companies only make enough product to fulfill customer’s orders. One advantage to the system is that there will be no excess of inventory that needs to be stored, thus reducing inventory levels and the cost of carrying and storing goods. However,

 

 

 

Question.5. Differentiate between Mass Production and Batch Production.

 

Answer:In the simplest of terms batch production is a particular sized lot of parts produced to a particular set of instructions. For example producing 50 medium green t-shirts would be a batch. Producing white medium t-shirts all day would be mass production.

 

Mass Production – Production of a particular component or product in a production system that can handle large volume of production but with very little to no variety in the design of the component or product. For example, an automobile ancillary can produce the tie rod of a particular model of car of a specific manufacturer but the volume would be as

 

 

 

 

Question.6. Elaborate various Elements of cost.

 

Answer:There are three elements of cost:

 

Material Cost: This is the cost of material or the commodity used by the organisation for its production purpose. Material is the substance, from which a product is made. Thus, it may be in a raw or a manufactured state. It can be direct or indirect.

 

Direct Material Cost forms an integral part of the finished

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OM 0016 – QUALITY MANAGEMENT

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE WINTER 2016
PROGRAM MBA
SEMESTER IV
SUBJECT CODE & NAME OM 0016 – QUALITY MANAGEMENT
BK ID B2009
CREDITS AND MARKS 4 CREDITS AND 60 MARKS

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

 

Question. 1. Explain various Principles of Total Quality Management

 

Answer:

Total quality management (TQM) is achieved and becomes part of the overall organizational culture when the five principles – produce quality work the first time, focus on the customer, have a strategic approach to improvement, improve continuously and encourage mutual respect and teamwork – are practiced by all employees.

 

What is Total Quality Management?

Why is online shopping a better experience on some sites than on others? Let’s look at total quality management (TQM) for

 

 

Question. 2. Elaborate the concept of International Standards. Also explain the following terms

  1. ISO 9001:2008
  2. ISO 9004:2009
  3. ISO 90003:2004: Software Quality Management
  4. ISO 13485:2003: Medical Devices Quality Management

 

Answer:International Standards are the backbone of our society, ensuring the safety and quality of products and services, facilitating international trade and improving the environment in which we live in.  Conformity to International Standards helps reassure consumers that products, systems and organizations are safe, reliable and good for the environment.

 

Economic benefits of standards: Numerous studies have shown that standards boost business and economies. In the UK, for example, standards account for an $8.2bn annual growth in GDP, while in Canada, the use of standards has injected over $91bn into the economy since 1981.

 

 

 

 

 

Question. 3. Explain the concept of culture. Differentiate between authoritarian culture and participative culture.

 

Answer:Culture is something which is created and which resides in the minds of the people. It is learned through our interaction with the environment and during our development and growing years. A growing baby learns a basic set of values, ideas, perceptions, preferences, concept of morality, code of conduct and so on through family and cultural socialization. Thus, we have two terms culture and history. With regard to the first, it may be stated that cultural norms of a society move from generation to generation. The second key term which is basic to culture implies that the cultural norms are shared among the members

 

 

 

Question. 4. Explain the steps of continuous quality improvement.

 

Answer:Continuous quality improvement (CQI) is a management philosophy used by organizations to better their processes. In this lesson, you will learn how continuous quality improvement is part of a group’s culture, how it benefits an organization, and about one of the most popular methods of implementing CQI.

 

Further, Better, Faster

 

Throughout history, the human race has always attempted to improve the conditions under which individuals live. Look at how transportation has evolved: from horses and buggies, to trains, to automobiles – and when it seemed like we

 

 

 

 

Question. 5. Define different aspects of the design and development of a product.

 

Answer: Product development is the process of creating a new product to be sold by a business or enterprise to its customers.  In the document title, Design refers to those activities involved in creating the styling, look and feel of the product, deciding on the product’s mechanical architecture, selecting materials and processes, and engineering the various components necessary to make the product work. Development refers collectively to the entire process of identifying a market opportunity, creating a product to appeal to the identified market, and finally, testing, modifying and refining the product until it is ready for production. A product can be any item from a book, musical composition, or information service, to an engineered product such as a computer, hair dryer, or washing machine. This document is focused on

 

 

 

Question. 6. Write Short notes on following.

 

  1. Knowledge Management

 

Answer:Knowledge management (KM) is the process of capturing, developing, sharing, and effectively using organizational knowledge. It refers to a multi-disciplinary approach to achieving organizational objectives by making the best use of knowledge.

 

An established discipline since 1991, KM includes courses taught in the fields of business administration, information systems, management, library, and information sciences. Other fields may contribute to KM research, including information and media, computer science, public health, and public policy.

 

 

 

 

  1. Expertise location

 

Answer:Expertise finding is the use of tools for finding and assessing individual expertise, with particular focus on scientific expertise.

 

A classification of expertise location systems

 

 

 

 

  1. Communities of Practice (CoPs)

 

Answer:Communities of practice are formed by people who engage in a process of collective learning in a shared domain of human endeavor: a tribe learning to survive, a band of artists seeking new forms of expression, a group of engineers working on similar problems, a clique of pupils defining their identity in the school, a network of surgeons exploring novel techniques, a gathering of first-time managers helping each other cope. In

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Knowledge management strategy

 

Answer:Knowledge management (KM) is the process of capturing, developing, sharing, and effectively using organizational knowledge. It refers to a multi-disciplinary approach to achieving organizational objectives by making the best use of knowledge.

 

 

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