IB0014 – CERTIFICATE IN EXPORT IMPORT MANAGEMENT

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ASSIGNMENT

 

PROGRAM Certificate in Export Import Management
SEMESTER IV
SUBJECT CODE & NAME CERTIFICATE IN EXPORT IMPORT MANAGEMENT – IB

SPECIALIZATION

CREDITS& MARKS 60

 

 

Note: Assignment (60 marks) must be written within 6-8 pages. Answer all questions. Kindlynote that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately 400 words. Each question isfollowed by evaluation scheme.

 

  1. 1 What is containerisation? Describe the advantages and disadvantages of containerization.

 

Answer: Containerization is an approach to the transport of goods and services that are in smaller quantities than the lots commonly transported by bulk transporters. The basic concept is that these smaller lots are packed and sealed in containers that can easily be stacked and transported intact, with no need to break down the contents along the way. This approach makes it possible to use multiple options in the actual transport, including road, rail, water, and air travel options.

 

 

 

 

  1. 2 List out the various export promotion schemes currently available to exporters. Explain MDA in detail.

 

Answer: To achieve the objectives laid down under the Foreign Trade Policy 2004-09 and double India’s percentage share of global merchandise trade by the year 2009, the government is committed to providing a stimulus to exports through various export promotion schemes from time to time. Details of the existing Export Promotion Schemes are as follows:

 

  • Advance licensing scheme
  • Duty Free Replenishment Certificate (DFRC) scheme
  • Duty drawback scheme
  • Export Promotion Capital

 

 

 

 

  1. 3 What are the advantages and disadvantages of air freight as compared to sea freight? Describe Air Way Bill and its use.

 

Answer: When it comes to shipping your items for international move you have two options: shipping by air or shipping by sea.

 

Air Freight is the quickest method and is usually reserved for your essential items like clothing and small shipments you’ll need promptly when you arrive.

 

 

 

 

  1. 4 Explain the requirement of cushioning materials in export packaging. Describe the main types of cushioning materials used and their application.

 

Answer:Goods are frequently transported which are particularly sensitive to mechanical stresses and which must consequently be protected from damage due to impact, jolting or vibration in transit. They are thus additionally protected by cushioning materials inside the shipping packaging.  Fragile goods, such as glass, ceramics, porcelain, or sensitive electronic products, such as computers and electronic home entertainment equipment, are particularly susceptible to mechanical stresses and should be protected.  In addition to protecting the package contents, cushioning materials may also be used to adjust the packages to a standard

 

 

  1. 5 You are a merchant exporter. A prospective overseas client has shown interest in your products. Write a letter making a firm offer mentioning all relevant facts regarding product features, payment terms, transport details, insurance, delivery schedules, packaging etc.,? Assume all relevant details about the product and the client.

 

Answer:Exporting and importing are two sides of the same coin; both supply customers with products manufactured outside the country. Exports now account for over 15% of global GNP and are growing at an annual compound rate in excess of 10%. Export marketing requires a knowledge of the target market, a marketing mix decision, planning, organisation and control and information systems. Exporting is often an incremental process, from unsolicited order filling to deliberate export planning. No doubt few firms will export unless

 

 

  1. 6 List out the Principal Export Documents along with a brief description of each of them.

 

Answer: Each export shipment involves many documents to satisfy government regulations controlling exporting as well as to meet requirements for international commercial payment transactions. The more frequently required documents are expert declaration, consular invoices or certificates of origin, bills of lading, commercial invoices and insurance certificates. Additional documents such as import licenses, export licenses packing lists, and inspection certificates for agricultural products are often necessary.

 

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BCA1040 – DIGITAL LOGIC

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ASSIGNMENT

 

PROGRAM BCA
SEMESTER 1
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BCA1040/IMC1040- DIGITAL LOGIC
CREDIT 4
BK ID B0948
MAX.MARKS 60

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

1 Solve each of the following 4-bit subtraction problems using 2’s complement representation.

  1. (00110)2 – (00101)2
  2. (0111)2 – (0001)2

Answer: The circuit has a Mode switch that allows you to choose between adding (M=0) and subtracting (M=1). To understand why this circuit works, let’s review binary addition and binary subtraction. We use 4-bit numbers in the examples because the main interactive circuit is a 4-bit adder–subtractor.

 

Binary addition is certainly easier than

 

 

 

2 What is difference between minterm and maxterm? Express the following function

F(x,y,z) = (x+z) y in form of minterm and maxterm?

 

Answer :Minterm and maxterm: Each row of a truth table can be associated with a minterm, which is a product (AND) of all variables in the function, in direct or complemented form. A minterm has the property that it is equal to 1 on exactly one row of the truth table.

 

 

 

 

3 Draw truth table for following Boolean function

 

  1. a) F(x,y) =(x+z)y

 

  1. b) F(x,y) = xy +xy’

Answer: Mathematics normally works with a two-valued logic: Every statement is either True or False. You can use truth tables to determine the truth or falsity of a complicated statement based on the truth or falsity of its simple components.

 

A statement in sentential logic is built from simple statements using the logical connectives ~ , v,^,-,. I’ll construct tables which show how the truth or falsity of a statement built with these connective depends on the truth or falsity of its components.

 

 

 

4 Simplify the following Boolean function using k map.

 

F(A, B, C, D) = ∑m(0,2,3,5,6,7,8,10,11,14,15)

 

Answer:

 

 

 

 

 

3-variable Karnaugh maps:

 

 

Above we, place the 1’s in the K-map for each of the product terms, identify a group of two, then write a p-term (product term) for the sole group as our simplified result.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. What are sequential circuits? Explain differences between sequential circuits and combinational circuits.

 

Answer : Sequential circuits:-  In digital circuit theory, sequential logic is a type of logic circuit whose output depends not only on the present value of its input signals but on the past history of its inputs. This is in contrast to combinational logic, whose output is a function of only the present input. That is, sequential logic has state (memory) while combinational logic does not. Or, in other words, sequential logic is combinational logic with memory.

Sequential logic is used to construct

 

  1. What is difference between Ring counter and Johson counter?

Answer : Ring counter

 

A ring counter is a type of counter composed of a circular shift register. If the output of a shift register is fed back to the input a ring counter results. There are two types of ring counters:

 

  • A straight ring counter or Over beck counter connects the output of the last shift register to the first shift register input and circulates a single one (or zero) bit around the ring. For example, in a 4-register one-hot counter, with initial

 

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BT0072 – COMPUTER NETWORKS

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ASSIGNMENT

PROGRAM BSc IT
SEMESTER SECOND
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BT0072, COMPUTER NETWORKS
CREDIT 4
BK ID B0956
MAX.MARKS 60

 

 

1 What is Message switching and Packet switching?

Answer : Message Switching

This technique was somewhere in middle of circuit switching and packet switching. In message switching, the whole message is treated as a data unit and is switching / transferred in its entirety.

A switch working on message switching, first receives the whole message and buffers it until there are resources available to transfer it to the

 

 

2 What is Framing? Briefly explain Fixed-Size Framing, Variable Size Framing,

 

Answer : Framing in the data link layer separates a message from one source to a destination, or from other messages to other destinations, by adding a sender address and a destination address. The destination address defines where the packet has to go and the sender address helps the recipient acknowledge the receipt.

 

Framing:

The data link layer, on the other hand, needs to pack bits into frames, so that each frame is distinguishable from another. Framing in the data link layer separates a message from one source to a destination, or from other messages to

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3 Briefly explain Stop-and-Wait Automatic Repeat Request?

 

Answer : Stop-and-wait ARQ also can be referred as Alternating bit protocol is a method used in telecommunications to send information between two connected devices. It ensures that information is not lost due to dropped packets and that packets are received in the correct order. It is the simplest kind of automatic repeat-request (ARQ) method. A stop-and-wait ARQ sender sends one frame at a time; it is a special case of the general sliding window protocol with both transmit and receive window sizes equal to 1 and more than one respectively . After sending each frame, the sender doesn’t send any further frames until it receives an acknowledgement (ACK) signal. After receiving a good frame, the receiver sends an

 

 

 

 

4 What is the role of Internet Protocol version 4 (IPV4) in addressing and routing packets between hosts? Briefly explain the structure of an IPV4 packet.

Answer : Routing interfaces are used to route IPv4 packets between the networks that are local to the switch. Local networks are directly connected to the switch. Routing interfaces are applied to VLANs and there can only be one routing interface per VLAN. Thus, each VLAN on the switch should have only one IPv4 network. Once you have applied routing interfaces to two or more VLANs, the switch automatically begins to route IPv4 packets across the VLAN boundaries.

Routing interfaces are an independent routing function and are not dependent on static routes or RIP to pass IPv4 traffic on the switch. The switch automatically begins to route IPv4 packets among its local networks in the different VLANs as soon as you have defined two or more routing interfaces.

Routing interfaces have two components:

 

 

5 . Explain the working and applications of SMTP.

Answer :

 

 

 

 

  1. Describe Caching and TTL. How it is useful in query resolving?

 

Answer: In computing, a cache (/ˈkæʃ/ KASH) is a component that stores data so that future requests for that data can be served faster. The data stored in a cache might contain the results of an earlier computation or duplicates of data stored elsewhere.

Time to live (TTL) is used for computer data including DNS servers. It is nothing but time on the period of time or number of iterations or transmissions in computer and computer network technology that a unit of data (e.g. a packet) can experience before it should be discarded.

 

When a server is processing a recursive query, it might be required to send out several queries to find the definitive answer. The server caches all of

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BT0071 -TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION – THEORY

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ASSIGNMENT

PROGRAM BSc IT
SEMESTER SECOND
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BT0071,TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION – THEORY
CREDIT 4
BK ID B0954
MAX.MARKS 60

 

1 What’s Audience Analysis? Explain its significance in Technical Communication

Answer : In few words, audience analysis is to know more about your end-users.

 

Audience Analysis is the task to identify your target audience to make sure that the information provided in the end-user documentation is suitable for satisfying their information requirements.

 

Why should you conduct Audience Analysis?

 

 

 

2 Explain the role of a technical editor. Differentiate between Micro and Macro editing.

Answer : To understand the role of a technical editor, a person must first understand technical editing. The term, simplified and in the context of technical communication, is the process of reviewing, revising, reorganizing, and many other gerunds that begin with “re.” The goal of editing is to take an author’s work and improve it—for whatever goal that author has. The goals of each author (and of each industry) are different—they may be writing for publication, for presentations, or for their companies. All the

 

 

 

3 Explain the various phases involved in System Development Life Cycle (SDLC).

 

Answer : System Study

Preliminary system study is the first stage of system development life cycle. This is a brief investigation of the system under consideration and gives a clear picture of what actually the physical system is? In practice, the initial system study involves the preparation of a System proposal which lists the Problem Definition, Objectives of the Study, Terms of reference for Study, Constraints, Expected benefits of the new system, etc. in the light of the user requirements. The system proposal is prepared by the System Analyst

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BT0070, Operating Systems

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Assignment

 

DRIVE FALL 2014
PROGRAM BSc IT
SEMESTER 2
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BT0070, Operating Systems
BK ID B0954
CREDIT & MARKS 4 CREDITS & 60 MARKS

 

Note: Answer all questions. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

  1. Describe batch operating system. Explain its advantages and disadvantages.

 

Answer: To avoid the problems of early systems the batch processing systems were introduced. The problem of early systems was more setup time. So the problem of more set up time was reduced by processing the jobs in batches, known as batch processing system. In this approach similar jobs were submitted to the CPU for processing and were run together.

 

The main function of a batch processing system is to automatically keep executing the jobs in a batch. This is the important task of a batch processing system i.e. performed by the ‘Batch Monitor’ resided in the low end of main memory.

 

 

 

  1. 2 Write short notes on:

 

  1. Critical section problem

Answer: Critical section problem is defined as :

  • Set of instructions that must be controlled so as to allow exclusive access to one process
  • Rarely: access to the critical section is limited to n processes instead of one process
  • Execution of the critical section by processes is mutually exclusive in time

 

 

 

  1. Buffering

Answer: It is a process of storing data in memory area called Buffers while data is being transferred between two devices or between a device and an application. Buffering is done for 3 reasons: a. To cope with the speed mismatch between producer (or sender) and consumer (or receiver) of a data stream. b. To adapt between the devices having different data-transfer size. c. To support copy semantics for application I/O. a data buffer (or just buffer) is a region of a physical memory storage used to temporarily store data while it is being moved

 

 

 

 

Q.3   What are TLBs? Why they are required in paging?

Answer: A translation look aside buffer (TLB) is a cache that memory management hardware uses to improve virtual address translation speed. The majority of desktop, laptop, and server processors includes one or more TLBs in the memory management hardware, and it is nearly always present in any hardware that utilizes paged or segmented virtual memory.

 

The TLB is sometimes implemented as content-addressable memory (CAM). The CAM search key is the virtual address and the search result is a physical address. If the requested address is present in the TLB, the CAM search yields a match quickly and

 

 

 

Q.4  Describe the techniques of free space management of free space list.

 

Answer: Techniques of free space management:

 

Bit-Vector

Frequently, the free-space list is implemented as a bit map or bit vector. Each block is represented by a 1 bit. If the block is free, the bit is 0; if the block is allocated, the bit is 1.

For example, consider a disk where blocks 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 17, 18, 25, 26, and 27 are free, and the rest of the blocks are allocated. The free-space bit map would be:

 

11000011000000111001111110001111…

 

 

 

Q.5 What are computer viruses? How do they affect our system?

 

Answer: A Computer virus is a small program that interferes with normal functions of the computer. Usually a virus program is attached to a computer file. The file to which a virus is attached is called infected file. When the infected file is copied on a disk, the virus is also copied and It hides itself on the disk.

 

Activation of a Virus

 

 

  1. List and explain the types of multiprocessor OS.

 

Answer: Multiprocessing refers to an operating situation where the simultaneous processing of programs takes place. This state of ongoing and coordinated processing is usually achieved by interconnecting two or more computer processors that make it possible to use the available resources to best advantage. Many operating systems today are equipped with a multiprocessing capability, although multiprogramming tends to be the more common approach today.

 

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BT0069, Discrete Mathematics

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ASSIGNMENT

PROGRAM BSc IT
SEMESTER SECOND
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BT0069, Discrete Mathematics
CREDIT 4
BK ID B0953
MAX.MARKS 60

 

Q.1 If U = {a,b,c,d,e}, A ={a,c,d}, B = {d,e}, C = {b,c,e}

Evaluate the following:

(a) A’ ´ (B-C)

(b)(AÈB)’´(BÇC)

(c)(A-B)´(B-C)

(d)(BÈC)’´A

(e)(B-A)´C’

 

Answer:

(a) A’ ´ (B-C)

A’ = set of those elements which belong to U but not to A.

A’ = (b, e)

(B-C) = (d)

A’ ´ (B-C) = (b,e)´(d)

 

(b)(AÈB)’´(BÇC)

(AÈB) = (a, c, d, e)

(AÇB)’ = (b)

 

 

 

 

2 (i) State the principle of inclusion and exclusion.

 

(ii) How many arrangements of the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 contain at least one of the patterns 289, 234 or 487? 4+6 10

 

Answer:

  1. Principle of Inclusion and Exclusion

For any two sets P and Q, we have;

  1. i) |P Q| ≤ |P| + |Q| where |P| is the number of elements in P, and |Q| is the number elements in Q.
  2. ii) |P Q| ≤

 

 

 

 

3 If G is a group, then

  1. i) The identity element of G is unique.
  2. ii) Every element in G has unique inverse in G.

iii)

For any a єG, we have (a-1)-1 = a.

 

  1. iv) For all a, b є G, we have (a.b)-1 = b-1.a-1. 4x 2.5 10

Answer:  i) Let ebe two identity elements in G. Since is the identity, we have e.ff. Since is the identity, we have e.e. Therefore, e.f. Hence the identity element is unique.

ii)Let be in and a1, a2 are

 

4 (i) Define valid argument

(ii) Show that ~(P  ^Q) follows from ~ P ^ ~Q. 5+5= 10

Answer: i)

Definition

Any conclusion, which is arrived at by following the rules is called a valid conclusion and argument is called a valid argument.

  1. ii) Assume ~(~(P ÙQ)) as an additional premise. Then,

 

 

5 (i) Construct a grammar for the language.

 

 ‘L⁼{x/ xє{ ab} the number of as in x is a multiple of 3.

 

(ii)Find the highest type number that can be applied to the following productions:

  1. S→ A0, A → 1 І 2 І B0, B → 012.
  2. S → ASB І b, A → bA І c ,
  3. S → bS І bc. 5+5 10

Answer: i)

Let T = {a, b} and N = {S, A, B},

is a starting symbol.

The set of productions: F

 

 

 

 

6 (i) Define tree with example

(ii) Any connected graph with ‘n’ vertices and n -1 edges is a tree. 5+5 10

Answer: i)

Definition

A connected graph without circuits is called a tree.

Example

Consider the two trees G1 = (V, E1) and G2 = (V, E2) where V = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j}

E1 = {{a, c}, {b, c}, {c, d}, {c, e}, {e, g

 

ii)

We prove this theorem by induction on the number vertices n.

If n = 1, then G contains only one vertex and no edge.

So the number of edges in G is n -1 = 1 – 1 = 0.

Suppose the induction hypothesis that the statement is true for all trees with less than „n‟ vertices. Now let us consider a tree with „n‟ vertices.

Let „ek‟ be any edge in T whose end vertices are vi and vj.

Since T is a tree, by Theorem 12.3.1,

 

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BT0068, Computer Organization and Architecture

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ASSIGNMENT

PROGRAM BSc IT
SEMESTER SECOND
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BT0068, Computer Organization and Architecture
CREDIT 4
BK ID B0952
MAX.MARKS 60

 

  1. Define microoperation and explain its types.

 

Answer: In computer central processing units, micro-operations (also known as a micro-ops or μops) are detailed low-level instructions used in some designs to implement complex machine instructions (sometimes termed macro-instructions in this context).

 

Usually, micro-operations perform basic operations on data stored in one or more registers, including transferring data between registers or between registers and external buses of the central processing unit (CPU), and performing arithmetic or logical operations on registers. In a typical fetch-decode-execute cycle, each step of a

 

 

  1. Describe bus in computer system and explain its structure.

Answer: In computer architecture, a bus is a subsystem that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers. Early computer buses were literally parallel electrical wires with multiple connections, but Modern computer buses can use both parallel and bit serial connections.

 

 

Single bus structure

To achieve a reasonable speed of operation, a computer must be organized so that all its units can handle one full word of data at a given time. When a word of data is transferred between units, all its bits are transferred in parallel, that is, the bits are transferred simultaneously over many wires, or lines, one bit per line. A group of lines that serves

 

 

 

3.Explain the simple instruction format with diagram and examples.

Answer: Computer instructions are the basic components of a machine language program. They are also known as macrooperations, since each one is comprised of a sequences of microoperations.

Each instruction initiates a sequence of microoperations that fetch operands from registers or memory, possibly perform arithmetic, logic, or shift operations, and store results in registers or memory.

Instructions are encoded as binary instr

 

 

  1. Explain infinite-precision and finite-precision ten’s complement.

 

Answer: Infinite-precision ten’s complement

 

Imagine the odometer of an automobile. It has a certain number of wheels, each with the ten digits on it. When one wheel goes from 9 to 0, the wheel immediately to the left of it, advances by one position. If that wheel already showed 9, it too goes to 0 and advances the wheel to its left, etc. Suppose we run the car backwards. Then the reverse happens, i.e. when a wheel goes from 0 to 9, the wheel to its left decreases by one.

 

 

  1. Explain the mapping functions between the main memory and CPU.

 

Answer: The main memory of the computer is also known as RAM, standing for Random Access Memory. It is constructed from integrated circuits and needs to have electrical power in order to maintain its information. When power is lost, the information is lost too! It can be directly accessed by the CPU. The access time to read or write any particular byte are independent of whereabouts in the memory that byte is, and currently is approximately 50 nanoseconds (a thousand millionth of a second). This is broadly comparable with the speed at which the CPU will need to access data. Main memory is expensive compared to external memory so it has limited capacity. The capacity available for a given price is increasing all the time. For example many home Personal Computers now have a capacity of 16 megabytes (million bytes), while 64 megabytes is commonplace on commercial workstations. The CPU will normally transfer data to and from the main memory in groups of two, four or eight bytes, even if the operation it is undertaking only requires a single byte.

 

Caching configurations continue to evolve, but memo

 

 

 

  1. Explain interrupt and interrupt driven I/O.

Answer: An interrupt is a signal from a device attached to a computer or from a program within the computer that causes the main program that operates the computer (the operating system ) to stop and figure out what to do next. Almost all personal (or larger) computers today are interrupt-driven – that is, they start down the list of computer instruction s in one program (perhaps an application such as a word processor) and keep running the instructions until either (A) they can’t go any further or (B) an interrupt signal is sensed. After the interrupt signal is sensed, the computer either resumes running the program it was running or begins running another program.

 

Basically, a single computer can perform only one computer instruction at a time. But, because it can be interrupted, it can take turns in which programs or

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PM0018 –CONTRACTS MANAGEMENT IN PROJECTS

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Assignment

 

DRIVE WINTER 2014
PROGRAM MBADS (SEM 4/SEM 6)  MBAFLEX/ MBA (SEM 4)  PGDPMN (SEM 2)
SUBJECT CODE & NAME PM 0018 –CONTRACTS MANAGEMENT IN PROJECTS
BK ID B2014
CREDIT AND MARKS 4 CREDITS AND 60 MARKS

 

 

1 Explain the essential elements of a project contract.

Answer:

Initiate. The initiation process authorizes the overall project or the next phase of a project. In this phase, project objectives are established, scope is defined, and responsible parties and deliverables are identified.

 

Plan. The planning processes are precisely that–the defining and refining of the best courses of action to take to attain the project objectives. Planning falls into two categories: core planning processes and facilitating processes.

 

 

 

2 Explain the steps involved in the contract closure process.

Answer: Contract Closure puts the finishing touches on Project Procurement Management. The four inputs to the Contract Closure Process are:

 

  • The Procurement Management Plan – The Procurement Management Plan is the play book for how to manage the Contract Closure process and to interweave it with other processes.
  • The Contract Management Plan – The Contract Management Plan details how to manage the contract on significant purchases, throughout the life of the contract. A project team commonly refers to the Contract Management Plan for any contract closure guidelines surrounding a purchase. By providing information for the

 

 

3 What is an outsourcing contract? What are its key content?

Answer: Outsourcing contracts can be complex affairs, but a good outsourcing contract will examine service level agreements, penalties and rewards, timeframes and measurements, regular reviews, and exit strategies.

The benefits for businesses that outsource their IT include lower IT costs, and the ability to scale up their operations as and when required.

They can also gain from using the expertise of

 

 

4 Discuss the process of procurement.

Answer: A Procurement Management Process, or Procurement Process, is a method by which items are purchased from external suppliers. The procurement management process involves managing the ordering, receipt, review and approval of items from suppliers. A procurement process also specifies how the supplier relationships will be managed, to ensure a high level of service is received. This is a critical task in Procurement Management. In essence, the procurement process helps you “get what you have paid for”.

 

 

5 What is contract management? Describe its important features.

Answer: The terms “contract management” and “contract administration” are often used synonymously. However, “contract management” is commonly understood as a broader and more strategic concept that covers the whole procurement cycle including planning, formation, execution, administration and close out of a contract and goes beyond the day to day “administrative” activities in the procurement cycle. Because it is difficult to draw the line between the two terms and because the majority of the UN organizations commonly use “contract management” when describing the contract administration phase, “contract management”

 

 

 

6 Write short notes on:

(a)Software development agreements: Software development agreement states the terms and conditions that govern the contractual agreement between having his principal place of business at developer address and having its principal place business at client address who agrees to be bound by this agreement.

Whereas the client has conceptualization which described in further detail on Exhibit A and the developer is a contractor with whom the client has come to an agreement to develop the software.

Now therefore in consideration of the mutual

 

 

 

(b)Bill of quantities method of pricing project contracts: The bill of quantities is a document prepared by the cost consultant (often a quantity surveyor) that provides project specific measured quantities of the items of work identified by the drawings and specifications in the tender documentation. The quantities may be measured in number, length, area, volume, weight or time. Preparing a bill of quantities requires that the design is complete and a specification has been prepared.

 

 

 

 

 

(c)Reasons for why an organisation uses standard form of contract: A standard form contract (sometimes referred to as an adhesion or boilerplate contract) is a contract between two parties, where the terms and conditions of the contract are set by one of the parties, and the other party has little or no ability to negotiate more

 

 

(d)Post bid review: Post Bids are presented to the Sellers daily and any Seller may elect to approve any bid at any time resulting in a deal being made with a bidder. If a bid is approved, the property may be removed from the site,

 

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PM0017 –PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT

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Assignment

 

DRIVE WINTER 2014
PROGRAM MBADS (SEM 4/SEM 6) MBAFLEX/ MBA (SEM 4) PGDPMN (SEM 2)
SUBJECT CODE & NAME PM 0017 –PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT
BK ID B2013
CREDIT AND MARKS 4 CREDITS AND 60 MARKS

 

 

 

1 Write short notes on:

(a)Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle

Answer: The plan–do–check–act cycle is a four–step model for carrying out change. Just as a circle has no end, the PDCA cycle should be repeated again and again for continuous improvement.

 

When to Use Plan–Do–Check–Act

  • As a model for continuous improvement.
  • When starting a new

 

 

(b)Product quality standards: Manufacturers usually invest money, time and effort in checking the quality of the products they manufacture.

 

 

(c)Inputs to quality assurance process: There are four inputs to the perform quality assurance process:

 

Project management plan. It is actually the quality management plan portion that is of interest here as it describes how the process of perform

 

 

 

 

2 Explain the process of quality control.

Answer: The quality control process is divided into three separate processes, ensuring that specialized expertise is applied to each stage of our operation. This system also provides the redundancy necessary to prevent any quality problem from evading detection.

Incoming Quality Control

It is the job of the IQC process to conduct inspections and handle quality issues before the assembly process starts.

 

 

 

 

3 Write a note on tree diagram, an advanced quality management tool.

Answer: The tree diagram starts with one item that branches into two or more, each of which branch into two or more, and so on. It looks like a tree, with trunk and multiple branches.

It is used to break down broad categories into finer and finer levels of detail. Developing the tree diagram helps you move your thinking step by step from generalities to specifics.

 

When to Use a Tree Diagram

  • When an issue is known or being

 

 

4 Explain the cycle time flowchart tool that can be used to analyse project processes.

Answer: The five steps in DMAIC are   Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control.   As the backbone of the Six Sigma methodology, DMAIC delivers sustained defect-free performance and highly competitive quality costs over the long run.

 

Step 1 – Define

The “D” (Define) in the DMAIC process focuses on selecting high-impact projects and understanding which underlying metric(s) will reflect project

 

 

5 Discuss the role of training and development in project quality.

Answer: Training presents a prime opportunity to expand the knowledge base of all employees, but many employers find the development opportunities expensive. Employees also miss out on work time while attending training sessions, which may delay the completion of projects. Despite the potential drawbacks, training and development provides both the company as a whole and the individual employees with benefits that make the cost and time a worthwhile investment.

 

Addressing Weaknesses

 

 

6 What are the issues in quality control in construction?

Answer: Quality control and safety represent increasingly important concerns for project managers. Defects or failures in constructed facilities can result in very large costs. Even with minor defects, re-construction may be required and facility operations impaired. Increased costs and delays are the result. In the worst case, failures may cause personal injuries or fatalities. Accidents during the construction process can similarly result in personal injuries and large costs. Indirect costs of insurance, inspection and regulation are increasing rapidly due to these increased direct costs. Good project managers try to ensure that the job is done right the first

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PM0016 –PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT

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Assignment

 

DRIVE WINTER 2014
PROGRAM MBADS (SEM 4/SEM 6)  MBAFLEX/ MBA (SEM 4)  PGDPMN (SEM 2)
SUBJECT CODE & NAME PM 0016 –PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT
BK ID B2012
CREDIT AND MARKS 4 CREDITS AND 60 MARKS

 

 

1 Describe the various type of project risks.

Answer:

  1. Executive Support

Wavering, inconsistent or weak executive commitment is often a project’s biggest risk. This can be difficult (but not impossible) to document. Ask for specific commitments. Where you are denied you can document it as a risk.

 

  1. Scope

The quality of your estimates, dependencies and scope management. If an estimate is just a guess, that’s a risk. Be sensitive to the comfort level of estimates. If your team is unsure about a particular estimate, you can document this as a risk.

 

 

 

2 Explain the different types of probability distributions in risk analysis.

Answer: Risk analysis is systematic use of available information to determine how often specified events may occur and the magnitude of their consequences.

Risks are typically defined as negative events, such as losing money on a venture or a storm creating large insurance claims. However, the

 

 

3 How is the impact of a qualitative risk assessed?

Answer: Risk analysis is systematic use of available information to determine how often specified events may occur and the magnitude of their consequences.

 

Risks are typically defined as negative events, such as losing money on a venture or a storm creating large insurance claims. However, the process of risk analysis can also uncover potential positive outcomes. By exploring the full space of possible

 

 

 

4 Explain the steps in risk management planning.

 

Answer: A Risk Management Plan is a document that a project manager prepares to foresee risks, estimate impacts, and define responses to issues. It also contains a risk assessment matrix.

 

A risk is “an uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a positive or negative effect on a project’s objectives.” Risk is inherent with any project, and project managers should assess risks continually and develop plans to address them. The risk

 

 

6 Write short notes on:

 

(a)Tools for analysing project constraints:

  • Strengths: As they relate to your organization or project’s value chain, strengths are what give your project team or product a distinct advantage over others in your same industry. For example, your project team members and the experience they hold may give you an edge over other organizations or consulting teams.
  • Weaknesses: Intuitively, to

 

 

 

(b)Project status report: The project status report is the project manager’s billboard to the world as far as how things are going on his project. It starts clean at the beginning of the project, full of optimism predicting the future of the engagement and indicating what’s coming up in the coming days and weeks.

 

Objectives

 

 

 

(c)Types of project audits based on method of conducting the audit:

 

  • Financial Audit:A historically oriented, independent evaluation performed for the purpose of attesting to the fairness, accuracy, and reliability of financial data.
  • Operational Audit: A future-oriented, systematic, and independent evaluation of organizational activities.
  • Department Review:A current

 

 

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