MI0034 – DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE WINTER 2014
PROGRAM MBADS (SEM 3/SEM 5)MBAFLEX/ MBA (SEM 3)

PGDISMN (SEM 1)

SUBJECT CODE & NAME MI0034 – DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
BK ID B1966
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

  1. 1. The data is stored in the form of tables which can be retrieved efficiently by any program as per the request. Since the database users are vast in number, the database provides authentication. Explain the different types of database users.

 

Answer:There are four different types of database system users, differentiated by the way that they expect to interact with the system. A primary goal of a database system is to provide an environment for retrieving information from and storing new information into the database.

 

  • Application programmers: They are computer professionals who interact with the system through DML calls, which are embedded in a program written in a host language (for example COBOL, C). Since the DML syntax is different from the host language syntax, DML calls are usually prefaced by a special

 

  1. 2. Computer storage is divided into primary memory and secondary memory. Discuss with an example, the different types of primary memory and secondary memory.

 

Answer:Primary Memory is a part of CPU (Central Processing Unit) whereas the secondary is external to the CPU. The Secondary Memory stores the data to keep it even when the electricity to the PC (Personal Computer) is cut off whereas the Primary Memory losses its contents immediately.

Types of primary memory

 

(a) Analog Memory: This type of Memory was used in the computers built during 1960’s. The basic storage device in this type of memory consists of a small ring shaped piece of magnetic material called a magnetic core. Each magnetic core in a

 

 

 

 

 

  1. 3. Consider any one example of a relational database and show how the different operations of relational algebra can be performed on the table showing the output.

 

Answer:A query language is a language in which user requests information from the database. it can be categorized as either procedural or nonprocedural. In a procedural language the user instructs the system to do a sequence of operations on database to compute the desired result. In nonprocedural language the user describes the desired information without giving a specific procedure for obtaining that information.

 

The relational algebra is a procedural query language. It consists of a set of operations that take one or two relations as input and produces a new relation as output.

 

Fundamental Operations

 

 

 

  1. 4. Describe the different normal forms with one example throughout.

 

Answer:First normal form (1NF or Minimal Form) is a normal form used in database normalization. A relational database table that adheres to 1NF is one that meets a certain minimum set of criteria. These criteria are basically concerned with ensuring that the table is a faithful representation of a relation and that it is free of repeating groups. The concept of a “repeating group” is, however, understood in different ways by different theorists. As a consequence, there is no universal agreement as to which features would disqualify a table from being in 1NF.

 

 

 

 

  1. 5. Write Short Notes on

 

  1. Transaction Commit:Marks the end of a successful implicit or explicit transaction. If TRANCOUNT is 1, COMMIT TRANSACTION makes all data modifications performed since the start of the transaction a permanent

 

 

  1. Atomicity:In database systems, atomicity (or atomicness; from Greek a-tomos, undividable) is one of the ACID transaction properties. In an atomic transaction, a series of database operations either all occur, or nothing occurs. The series of operations cannot be divided apart and executed partially from

 

 

  1. Deferred update:With deferred update, the macro could run an order of magnitude faster. The more insidious of the two ways higher-level commands come about is through the efforts of a good designer. The primitive operations of the editor are treated as building blocks for more complex editor operations. This produces the usual increase in productivity during editor development — a good thing.

 

 

 

 

  1. Security:Security is the degree of resistance to, or protection from, harm. It applies to any vulnerable and valuable asset, such as a person, dwelling, community, nation, or organization. As noted

 

  1. System log:The system log file contains events that are logged by the operating system components

 

 

 

  1. 6. With an example explain the working of ODBMS.

Explaining with an example

 

Answer:When you use an ODBMS, the way you use your data is the way you store it. The first benefit can be found in development. When you use an ODBMS, you will write less code than if you were writing to an RDBMS. The reason for the smaller amount of code is simple — when you are using Java or C++ — you won’t

 

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MI0033 – SOFTWARE ENGINEERING

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE WINTER 2014
PROGRAM MBADS (SEM 3/SEM 5)MBAFLEX/ MBA (SEM 3)

PGDISMN (SEM 1)

SUBJECT CODE & NAME MI0033 – SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
BK ID B1965
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

  1. 1. Explain the concept of “software project life cycle” with a suitable example.

 

Answer:There are various software development approaches defined and designed which are used/employed during development process of software, these approaches are also referred as “Software Development Process Models” (e.g. Waterfall model, incremental model, V-model, iterative model, etc.). Each process model follows a particular life cycle in order to ensure success in process of software development.

 

Software life cycle models describe phases of the software cycle and the order in which those phases are executed. Each phase produces deliverables required by the next phase in the life cycle. Requirements are translated into design. Code is produced according to the design which is called development phase. After coding and

 

  1. 2. Describe the different software estimation techniques and models used for estimating a software project.

 

Answer:Practitioners have expressed concern over their inability to estimate accurately costs associated with software development. This concern has become even more pressing as cost associated development continue to increase. Considerable studies are now directed at constructing ,evaluating and selecting better software cost estimation models and tools for specific software development projects. This essay gives an overview of cost estimation models and then discusses their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, the guidelines for selecting appropriate cost estimation models are given and a combination method is recommended.

 

 

 


  1. 3. Describe in detail the software reliability metrics and its types

 

Explaining software metrics

Explaining software reliability models

 

Answer:A software metric is a quantitative measure of a degree to which a software system or process posesses some property. Since quantitative measurements are essential in all sciences, there is a continuous effort by computer science practitioners and theoreticians to bring similar approaches to software development. The goal is obtaining objective, reproducible and quantifiable measurements, which may have numerous valuable applications in schedule and budget planning, cost estimation, quality assurance testing, software

 

 

  1. 4. Briefly note on design fundamentals and explain the principles of design

 

Answer:Design fundamentals

 

The basic structure of graphic design consists of three basic elements:

 

  • Dot
  • Line
  • Area

 

  1. Dot – is the smallest element of graphic design. Depending on a distance points of various sizes can be perceived. Designing with dots or points can create a wide variety of visual effects. There are various associations that can be made with

 

 

 

  1. 5. Explain the different types of integration testing

 

 

Answer:Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test. Software testing can also provide an objective, independent view of the software to allow the business to appreciate and understand the risks of software implementation. Test techniques include, but are not limited to, the process of executing a program or application with the intent of finding software bugs (errors or other defects).

 

It involves the execution of a software

 

 

  1. 6. Briefly explain the SQA plan.

 

Answer:The purpose of the software quality assurance plans (SAQP) is to specify all the work products that need to be produced during the project, activities that need to be performed for checking the quality of each of the work products, and the tools and methods that may be used for the SQA activities.

 

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MIT3042 – Embedded Systems

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[ Winter 2014 ] ASSIGNMENT

 

PROGRAM Master of Science in Information Technology(MSc IT)Revised Fall 2011
SEMESTER 3
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MIT3042– Embedded Systems
CREDIT 4
BK ID B1551
MARKS 60

 

 

Answer all Questions

Q.1. a) What is an Embedded System? Explain.

  1. b) What are the characteristics of Embedded Systems?

 

Answer: a) Embedded System:An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints. It is embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts. Embedded systems control many devices

 

 

 

 

b)Characteristics of Embedded Systems:

 

Embedded systems are designed to do some specific task, rather than be a general-purpose computer for multiple tasks. Some also have real-time performance constraints that must be met, for reasons such as safety and usability; others may have low or no performance requirements, allowing the system hardware to be simplified to reduce costs.  Embedded systems are not always standalone devices. Many

 

 

 

 

  1. 2. What is a microcontroller? List the salient features of 8051 microcontroller.

 

Answer:A microcontroller (sometimes abbreviated µC, uC or MCU) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals. Program memory in the form of Ferroelectric RAM, NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on chip, as well as a typically small amount of RAM. Microcontrollers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications.

 

 

 

 

  1. 3. Explain the following directives in 8051.

 

(i) DB directive:The DB directive is the most widely used data directive in the assembler. It is used to define the 8-bit data. When DB is used to define data, the numbers can be in decimal, binary, hex, or ASCII formats. For decimal, the “D” after the decimal number is optional, but using “B” (binary) and “H” (hexadecimal) for the others is required. Regardless of which is used, the assembler will convert the numbers into hex. To indicate ASCII, simply place the characters in quotation marks (‘like this’). The assembler will assign the ASCII

 

 

 

 

  1. 4. List and explain RTOS kernel components.

 

Answer:A real-time operating system (RTOS) is an operating system (OS) intended to serve real-time application process data as it comes in, typically without buffering delays. Processing time requirements (including any OS delay) are measured in tenths of seconds or shorter.A key characteristic of an RTOS is the level of its consistency concerning the amount of time it takes to accept and complete an application’s task; the variability is jitter. A hard real-time operating system has less jitter than a soft real-time operating system.

 

 

 

  1. 5. What are the functions that interrupt and event handling mechanism of an RTOS provide?

 

Answer:Since an interrupt handler blocks the highest priority task from running, and since real time operating systems are designed to keep thread latency to a minimum, interrupt handlers are typically kept as short as possible. The interrupt handler defers all interaction with the hardware if possible; typically all that is necessary is to acknowledge or disable the interrupt (so that it won’t occur again when the interrupt handler returns) and notify a task that work needs to be done. This can be done by unblocking a driver task through releasing a semaphore, setting a flag or sending a message. A scheduler often provides the ability

 

 

 

 

  1. 6. Write note on I²C Bus.

 

Answer:The I2C bus was designed by Philips in the early ’80s to allow easy communication between components which reside on the same circuit board. Philips Semiconductors migrated to NXP in 2006.

 

The name I2C translates into “Inter IC”. Sometimes the bus is called IIC or I²C bus.

 

The original communication

 

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MIT3033 – Software Architecture

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[ Winter 2014 ] ASSIGNMENT

 

 

PROGRAM Master of Science in Information Technology(MSc IT)Revised Fall 2011
SEMESTER 3
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MIT3033– Software Architecture
CREDIT 4
BK ID B1549
MARKS 60

 

 

Answer all Questions

Q.1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of layered systems

 

Answer:Layered architecture increases flexibility, maintainability, and scalability. In a Layered architecture we separate the user interface from the business logic, and the business logic from the data access logic. Separation of concerns among these logical layers and components is easily achieved with the help of layered architecture.

 

Multiple applications can reuse the components

 

 

 

Q.2. What are the benefits and properties of architectural styles

 

Answer:An architectural style is a set of principles. You can think of it as a coarse-grained pattern that provides an abstract framework for a family of systems. An architectural style improves partitioning and promotes design reuse by providing solutions to frequently recurring problems.

 

Architectural styles provide a few benefits. The most important is that they provide a common language. Another benefit is that they provide a way to have a conversation that is technology agnostic. This allows you to facilitate a

 

 

 

 

 

  1. 3. Explain the any four components of broker architecture.

 

Answer: The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) is a standard defined by the Object Management Group (OMG) designed to facilitate the communication of systems that are deployed on diverse platforms. CORBA enables collaboration between systems on different operating systems, programming languages, and computing hardware. CORBA has many of the same design goals as object-oriented programming: encapsulation and reuse. CORBA uses an object-oriented model although the systems that utilize CORBA do not have to be object-oriented. CORBA is an example of the distributed object paradigm.

 

 

 

  1. 4. List and explain the two design methods used in software engineering.

 

Answer:The role of the software design methodology cannot be overemphasized. Software design methodology provides a logical and systematic means of proceeding with the design process as well as a set of guidelines for decision-making. The design methodology provides a sequence of activities, and often uses a set of notations or diagrams. The design methodology is especially important for large complex projects that involve programming-in-the-large (where many designers are involved); the use of a methodology establishes a set of common communication channels for translating design to codes and a set of common objectives. In addition, there must be an objective match between the overall character of the problem and the features of the solution approach, in order for a methodology to be efficient.

 

 

 

  1. 5. What are the different types of design patterns?

 

Answer:Design patterns represent the best practices used by experienced object-oriented software developers. Design patterns are solutions to general problems that software developers faced during software development. These solutions were obtained by trial and error by numerous software developers over quite a substantial period of time. Design patterns are divided into three fundamental groups:

 

 

  1. 6. Explain the importance of documenting architecture

 

Answer:Software documentation is written text that accompanies computer software. It either explains how it operates or how to use it, and may mean different things to people in different roles.

 

Documentation is an important part of software engineering. Types of documentation include:

 

  • Requirements – Statements that identify attributes, capabilities, characteristics, or qualities of a system. This is the foundation for what shall be or has been implemented.
  • Architecture/Design

 

 

 

 

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MIT204 – Data Communication & Networking

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 [ Winter 2014 ] ASSIGNMENT

 

 

PROGRAM Master of Science in Information Technology(MSc IT)Revised Fall 2011
SEMESTER 2
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MIT204– Data Communication & Networking
CREDIT 4
BK ID B1389
MARKS 60

 

 

Answer all Questions

Q.1. Discuss on transmission impairments.

 

Answer:With any communications system, it must be recognized that the received signal will differ from the transmitted signal due to various transmission impairments. For analog signals, these impairments introduce various random modifications that degrade the signal quality. For digital signals, bit errors are introduced: A binary 1 is trans- – formed into a binary 0 and vice versa. In this section, we examine the various impairments and comment on their effect on the information-carrying capacity of a communication link.

 

  • Attenuation:Attenuation means a loss of energy The strength of a signal falls off with distance over any transmission medium. For guided media, this reduction in strength, or attenuation, is generally logarithmic and is

 

 

 

  1. 2. Explain the major criteria for a Data Communication Network

 

Answer:Data communications refers to the transmission of this digital data between two or more computers and a computer network or data network is a telecommunications network that allows computers to exchange data. The physical connection between networked computing devices is established using either cable media or wireless media. The best-known computer network is the Internet.

 

The major criteria that a Data Communication

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. 3. Write a note on

 

 

  1. a) 10Base2:10BASE2 (also known as cheapernet, thin Ethernet, thinnet, and thinwire) is a variant of Ethernet that uses thin coaxial cable (RG-58A/U or similar, as opposed to the thicker RG-8 cable used in 10BASE5 networks), terminated with BNC connectors. During the mid to late 1980s this was the dominant 10 Mbit/s Ethernet standard, but

 

 

 

 

  1. b) 10Base- T: Ethernet over twisted pair technologies use twisted-pair cables for the physical layer of an Ethernet computer network.

 

Early Ethernet cabling had generally been based on various grades of coaxial cable, but in 1984, StarLAN showed the potential of simple unshielded twisted pair by using Cat3 cable—the same simple cable used for telephone systems. This

 

 

 

  1. 4. What do you mean by congestion? Explain

 

Answer:Congestion, in the context of networks, refers to a network state where a node or link carries so much data that it may deteriorate network service quality, resulting in queuing delay, frame or data packet loss and the blocking of new connections. In a congested network, response time slows with reduced network throughput. Congestion occurs when bandwidth is insufficient and network data traffic exceeds capacity.

 

Data packet loss from congestion is partially countered by aggressive network protocol retransmission, which maintains a network

 

 

 

 

 

  1. 5. Explain the following

 

  1. a) Class A networks: Class A networks are assigned to organizations with very large numbers of computers—including servers and routers—attached to their networks. A government department or a Fortune 500 corporation would be examples of this type of network. The following characteristics apply to class A

 

 

 

 

  1. b) Class B networks: Class B networks are also assigned to organizations with large networks. Class B networks have the following characteristics:

 

  • Class B network addresses range from 128.0.0.0 to 191.255.255.255.
  • The first 2 bits in a class B address are always 10 (128).
  • In a class B network, the netid is determined by the first 8 bits (first 2 bytes).
  • The hostid is determined by the last 8 bits (last 2 bytes).
  • There are 216 (65,536)

 

 

 

  1. 6. Explain the following.
  2. a) Open loop congestion control: In open-loop congestion control, policies are applied to prevent congestion before it happens. In these mechanisms, congestion control is handled by either the source or the destination. We give a brief list of policies that can prevent congestion.

 

Retransmission Policy:Retransmission is sometimes unavoidable. If the sender feels that a sent packet is lost or

 

 

 

  1. b) Closed loop congestion control: Closed-loop congestion control mechanisms try to alleviate congestion after it hap-pens. Several mechanisms have been used by different protocols. We describe a few of them here.

 

Backpressure: The technique of backpressure refers to a congestion control mechanism in which a congested node stops receiving data from the immediate upstream node or nodes.

 

Choke Packet: A

 

 

 

  1. 7. Explain the categories Network security problems

 

Answer:Network security consists of the provisions and policies adopted by a network administrator to prevent and monitor unauthorized access, misuse, modification, or denial of a computer network and network-accessible resources. Network security involves the authorization of access to data in a network, which is controlled by the network administrator. Users choose or are assigned an ID and password or other authenticating information that allows them access to information and programs within their authority.

 

 

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MIT203 – ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF ALGORITHMS

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[ Winter 2014 ] ASSIGNMENT

 

PROGRAM Master of Science in Information Technology(MSc IT)Revised Fall 2011
SEMESTER 2
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MIT203- ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF ALGORITHMS
CREDIT 4
BK ID B1480
MARKS 60

 

 

Answer all questions

  1. 1. Write the steps involved in analyzing the efficiency of non-recursive algorithms.

 

Answer:The study of algorithms is called algorithmics. It is more than a branch of computer science. It is the core of computer science and is said to be relevant to most of science, business and technology. An algorithm is a sequence of unambiguous instructions for solving a problem, i.e., for obtaining a required output for any legitimate input in finite amount of time.

 

The three algorithms used to find the gcd of two numbers are

 

  • Euclid’s algorithm
  • Consecutive integer

 

 

 

 

  1. 2. Define selection sort and explain how to implement the selection sort?

 

Answer:In computer science, selection sort is a sorting algorithm, specifically an in-place comparison sort. It has O(n2) time complexity, making it inefficient on large lists, and generally performs worse than the similar insertion sort. Selection sort is noted for its simplicity, and it has performance advantages over more complicated algorithms in certain situations, particularly where auxiliary memory is limited.

 

The algorithm divides the input list into two parts: the sublist of items already sorted, which is built up from left to right at the front (left) of the list, and

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. 3. Define Topological sort. And explain with example.

 

Answer:In computer science, a topological sort (sometimes abbreviated topsort or toposort) or topological ordering of a directed graph is a linear ordering of its vertices such that for every directed edge uv from vertex u to vertex v, u comes before v in the ordering. For instance, the vertices of the graph may represent tasks to be performed, and the edges may represent constraints that one task must be performed before another; in this application, a topological ordering is just a valid sequence for the tasks. A topological ordering is possible if and only if the graph has no directed cycles, that is, if it is a directed acyclic

 

 

 

 

  1. 4. Explain good-suffix and bad-character shift in Boyer-Moore algorithm.

 

Answer:In computer science, the Boyer–Moore string search algorithm is an efficient string searching algorithm that is the standard benchmark for practical string search literature. It was developed by Robert S. Boyer and J Strother Moore in 1977. The algorithm preprocesses the string being searched for (the pattern), but not the string being searched in (the text). It is thus well-suited for applications in which the pattern is much shorter than the text or where it persists across multiple searches. The Boyer-Moore algorithm uses information gathered during the preprocess step to skip sections of the text, resulting in a lower constant factor than many other string algorithms. In general, the algorithm runs faster

 

 

 

 

  1. 5. Solve the Knapsack problem using memory functions.

Item 1 2 3 4

Weight 2 6 4 8

Value (in Rs.) 12 16 30 40

Knapsack capacity is given as W=12. Analyze the Knapsack problem using memory functions with the help of the values given above.

 

Answer:The classical Knapsack Problem (KP) can be described as follows. We are given a set N={1,…,n} of items, each of them with positive profit pj and positive weight wj, and a knapsack capacity c. The problem asks for a subset of items whose total weight does not exceed the knapsack capacity, and whose profit is a maximum. It can be formulated as the following Integer Linear Program (ILP):

(KP)max∑j∈Npjxj(1)

 

 

 

 

  1. 6. Describe Variable Length Encoding and Huffman Encoding.

 

Answer:Variable Length Encoding:In coding theory a variable-length code is a code which maps source symbols to a variable number of bits.Variable-length codes can allow sources to be compressed and decompressed with zero error (lossless data compression) and still be read back symbol by symbol. With the right coding strategy an independent and identically-distributed source may be compressed almost arbitrarily close to its entropy. This is in contrast to fixed length coding methods, for which data compression is only possible for large blocks of data, and any compression beyond the logarithm of the total number of possibilities comes with a finite (though perhaps arbitrarily small) probability of failure.

 

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MBF201 – FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE FALL WINTER 2014
PROGRAM MBA/ MBADS/ MBAFLEX/ MBAHCSN3/ PGDBAN2
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MBF201 – FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
SEMESTER II
BK ID B1628
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

1 Explain the liquidity decisions and its important elements. Write complete information on dividend decisions.

Answer :  Liquidity decisions with its important elements

The liquidity decision is concerned with the management of the current assets, which is a pre-requisite to long-term success of any business firm. This is also called as working capital decision. The main objective of the current assets management is the trade-off between profitability and liquidity, and there is a conflict between these two concepts. The short term liquidity is important to pay off the current liabilities of the company. Where in short run, the company has more current liabilities than current assets, the company can

 

2 Explain about the doubling period and present value. Solve the below given problem:

Under the ABC Bank’s Cash Multiplier Scheme, deposits can be made for periods ranging from 3 months to 5 years and for every quarter, interest is added to the principal. The applicable rate of interest is 9% for deposits less than 23 months and 10% for periods more than 24 months. What will be the amount of Rs. 1000 after 2 years?

 

Answer :

Doubling Period

 

Doubling Period = log (2)/ (log 1 +r). r stands for rate of return

The Doubling Time formula is used in Finance to calculate the length of time required to double an investment or money in an interest bearing account.

It is important to note that r in the doubling time formula is the rate per period. If one wishes to calculate the amount of time to double their money in a

 

3 Write short notes on:

  1. a) Operating Leverage
  2. b) Financial leverage
  3. c) Combined leverage

 

Answer :

3a) Operating Leverage

Operating Leverage is a measurement of the degree to which a firm or project incurs a combination of fixed and variable costs. The higher the degree of operating leverage, the greater is the potential danger from forecasting risk. That is, if a relatively small error is made in forecasting sales, it can be magnified into large errors in cash flow projections. The opposite s true for businesses that are less leveraged. A business that sells millions of products a year, with each contributing slightly to paying for fixed costs, is not as

 

3b) Financial Leverage

Financial leverage is the degree to which a company uses fixed-income securities such as debt and preferred equity. The more debt financing a company uses, the higher its financial leverage. A high degree of financial leverage means high interest payments, which negatively affect the company’s bottom-line earnings per share.

 

Financial risk is the risk to the stockholders that is

 

 

3c) Combined Leverage

A leverage ratio that summarizes the combined effect the degree of operating leverage (DOL), and the degree of financial leverage has on earnings per share (EPS), given a particular change in sales. This ratio can be used to help determine

 

 

 

4 Explain the factors affecting Capital Structure. Solve the below given problem:

Given below are two firms, A and B, which are identical in all aspects except the degree of leverage employed by them. What is the average cost of capital of both firms?

Answer :  

 

Factors affecting capital structure

Capital structure means the proportion of debt and equity used for financing the operations of business.

Factors Determining the Capital Structure:

 

The various factors which influence the decision of

 

 

5 Explain all the sources of risk in capital budgeting with examples.

Solve the below given problem:

Answer :  

Sources of risk in capital budgeting

Risk arises in capital budgeting because the firm cannot predict the occurrence of possible future events with certainty and hence, cannot make any correct forecast about the cash flows. The uncertain economic conditions are the sources of uncertainty in the cash flows. For example, a company wants to produce and market a new product to their prospective customers. The demand is affected by the general economic conditions. Demand may be

 

  1. Explain the objectives of Cash Management. Write about the Baumol model with their assumptions.

 

Answer:

Objectives of Cash Management

 

Cash management is a broad term that refers to the collection, concentration, and disbursement of cash. It encompasses a company’s level of liquidity, its management of cash balance, and its short-term investment strategies. In some ways, managing cash flow is the most important job of business managers. If at any time a company fails to pay an obligation when it is due because of the lack of cash, the company is insolvent. Insolvency is the primary reason firms go bankrupt. Obviously, the prospect of such a dire consequence should compel companies to manage their cash with care. Moreover, efficient cash management means more than just preventing bankruptcy. It improves the profitability and reduces the risk to which the firm

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MBF104 – FINANCIAL AND MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE WINTER  2014
PROGRAM MBADS / MBAHCSN3 / MBAN2 / PGDBAN2 / MBAFLEX
SEMESTER I
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MBF104 – FINANCIAL AND MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING
BK ID B1624
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

Q1. Analyze the following transaction under traditional approach.

 

18.1.2011 Received a cheque from a customer, Sanjay at 5 p.m. Rs.20,000

19.1.2011 Paid Ramu by cheque Rs.1,50,000

20.1.2011 Paid salary Rs. 30,000

20.1.2011 Paid rent by cheque Rs. 8,000

21.1.2011 Goods withdrawn for personal use Rs. 5,000

25.1.2011 Paid an advance to suppliers of goods Rs. 1,00,000

26.1.2011 Received an advance from customers Rs. 3,00,000

31.1.2011 Paid interest on loan Rs. 5,000

31.1.2011 Paid instalment of loan Rs. 25,000

31.1.2011 Interest allowed by bank Rs. 8,000

Analysis of transaction –with accounts involved-nature of account-affects and debit/credit

Answer :

 

Date Accounts Nature of Affects Debit/
  Involved Account Credit
18.1.2011 Cash A/.c Real Cash is coming in Debit
Sanjay A/c. Personal Sanjay is the giver Credit
19.1.2011 Ramu Ac. Personal Ramu is the receiver Debit
Cash A/.c Real Cash is going out Credit

 

 

 

Q2. The trial balance of Nilgiris Co Ltd., as taken on 31st December, 2002 did not tally and the  difference was carried to suspense account. The following errors were detected  subsequently.

 

  1. a) Sales book total for November was under cast by Rs. 1200.
  2. b) Purchase of new equipment costing Rs. 9475 has been posted to Purchases a/c.
  3. c) Discount received Rs.1250 and discount allowed Rs. 850 in September 2002 have been posted to wrong sides of discount account.
  4. d) A cheque received from Mr. Longford for Rs. 1500 for goods sold to him on credit earlier, though entered correctly in the cash book has been posted in his account as Rs. 1050.
  5. e) Stocks worth Rs. 255 taken for use by Mr Dayananda, the Managing Director, have been entered in sales day book.
  6. f) While carrying forward, the total in Returns Inwards Book has been taken as Rs. 674 instead of Rs. 647.
  7. g) An amount paid to cashier, Mr. Ramachandra, Rs. 775 as salary for the month of November has been debited to his personal account as Rs. 757.

(Pass journal entries and draw up the suspense account, Journal entries of all the transactions, Suspense account with Conclusion)

 

Answer :

 

Serial No. Journal Entry Debit Credit
a) Suspense Account 1200
               To Sales 1200
b) No Suspense Account Involved

 

 

 

3 From the given trial balance draft an Adjusted Trial Balance.

Adjustments:

  1. Charge depreciation at 10% on Buildings and Furniture and fittings.
  2. Write off further bad debts 1000
  3. Taxes and Insurance prepaid 2000
  4. Outstanding salaries 5000
  5. Commission received in advance1000

 

 

 Solution;-Ledger accounts Furniture and fittings a/c

Particulars Rs. Particulars Rs.
To bal b/d 500000 By Depreciation

By bal c/d

50000

450000

Total 500000 Total 500000

 

 

 

4 Compute trend ratios and comment on the financial performance of Infosys Technologies Ltd. from the following extract of its income statements of five years. (inRs. Crore)

Preparation of trend analysis

Solution: Infosys Technologies Ltd.

 

Trend Analysis Particulars 2010-11 2009-10 2008-09 2007-08 2006-07
Revenue 27,501 22,742 21,693 16,692 13,893
Operating Profit (PBIDT) 8,968 7,861 7,195 5,238 4,391

 

 

 

 

5 Give the meaning of cash flow analysis and put down the objectives of cash flow analysis. Explain the preparation of cash flow statement.

 

Answer : Meaning of cash flow analysis

A cash flow statement is one of the most important financial statements for a project or business. The statement can be as simple as a one page analysis or may involve several schedules that feed information into a central statement.

 

A cash flow statement is a listing of the flows of cash into and out of the business or project. Think of it as your checking account at the bank. Deposits are the cash inflow and withdrawals (checks) are the cash outflows. The balance in your checking account is your net cash flow at a specific point in time.

 

 

6 Write the assumptions of marginal costing. Differentiate between absorption costing and marginal costing.

Answer : The Cost of a product of comprises of materials, labour, and over heads. On the basis of variability they can be broadly classified as fixed and variable costs. Fixed costs are those costs which remain constant at all levels of production within a given period of time. In other words, a cost that does not change in total but become. progressively smaller per unit when the volume of production increases is known as fixed cost. it is also called period cost eg. Rent, Salary, Insurance charges etc. On the other hand variable cost are those cost which very in accordance with the volume of output. To part it in another way. variable costs are uniform per unit. but their total fluctuates in direct position to the total of the related activity or volume

 

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MBF- 407 FINACLE SERVICES

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ASSIGNMENT

 

 

DRIVE WINTER 2014
PROGRAM MBABF
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MBF-407 FINACLE SERVICES
SEMESTER 4
BK ID B 1394
CREDITS 1
MARKS 50

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

1.     A garnishee Order for Rs.75000/- is received in an account which shows a balance of Rs.475000/- How you will proceed to block the funds?

 

Answer :

 

 

 

2.     Explain the process in Finacle for issuing mass DDs in Finacle

 

Answer:

 

For issuing mass DDs, the below steps are to be followed:

 

·         Select Menu option DDMI and press Enter

·         Press Function A and F4

·         Enter Transaction Type & Sub-type

·         Enter DD issued Account No (use search option)

·         Fill Purchaser Account No.in Pur A/c

 

 

 

3.     Two attachment orders – one IT and One Sales Tax is received in your customer’s account at an interval of 15 minutes on the same day. How will you process the same in Finacle?

 

Answer:

 

  • Select Menu Option AFSM and press Enter
  • Press Function F <Freeze> and F4
  • Input Customer Id (to freeze all accounts of the customer) or Account Id
  • Select

 

  1. What is Credit Freeze in Finacle?

 

Answer:

 

Credit Freeze is when a customer’s account/s is restricted for any credit type of transactions.

 

 

 

 

  1. What is the need for a Standing Instruction?

 

Answer:

 

Standing Instructions (SI) are instructions for transactions which are repetitive in nature (Monthly/Quarterly/Yearly).  Since the parameters for these transactions will remain the same,

 

 

  1. Explain in Detail what is Bank Induced Sis and Customer Induced SIs.

 

Answer:

 

Bank Induced SIs are those which bank defines to the customer’s account.  For example, Loan Installment repayment or Recurring Deposit payment are Bank induced SIs.

 

On the contrary, there are

 

 

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MBF 405 CORPORATE GOVERNANCE, ETHICS AND COMPLIANCE

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ASSIGNMENT

 

PROGRAM MBABF
SEMESTER IV
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MBF 405 CORPORATE GOVERNANCE, ETHICS AND COMPLIANCE
CREDIT 4
BK ID B1411
MAX.MARKS 60

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

1 Define ethics, morals and values and explain its evolution, principles and benefits.

Answer: Ethics, sometimes known as moral philosophy, is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. The superfield within philosophy known as axiology includes both ethics and aesthetics and is unified by each sub-branch’s concern with value.Philosophical ethics investigates what is the best way for humans to live, and what kinds of actions are right or wrong in particular circumstances. Ethics may be divided into three major areas of study.

 

 

 

 

2 a. Explain the framework of ethical decision making.

 

Answer: Recognize an Ethical Issue

  • Could this decision or situation be damaging to someone or to some group? Does this decision involve a choice between a good and bad alternative, or perhaps between two “goods” or between two “bads”?
  • Is this issue about more than what is legal or what is most efficient? If so, how?

Get the Facts

  • What are the relevant facts of the case?

 

 

 

  1. Describe the ethical issues faced by the banking professionals.

 

Answer: Ethical issues in the financial services industry affect everyone, because even if you don’t work in the field, you’re a consumer of the services. That was the message of Ronald F. Duska and James A. Mitchell in their presentation at a recent meeting of the Business and Organizational Ethics Partnership.

 

The public seems to have the perception that the financial services sector is more unethical than other areas of business, Mitchell began. For the past five years, he has been Executive Fellow-Leadership at the Center for Ethical Business Cultures,

 

 

3 a. Describe unethical practices in selling financial products.

 

Answer: Ethics can be defined as going beyond what is legal and doing what is right, even when no one is looking! So when we talk about unethical behavior in business, we are talking about actions that don’t conform to the acceptable standards of business operations . . . doing what is right in every situation. In some cases it may be an individual within a business who is unethical in the course of his or her job, and other times we are talking about corporate culture, where the whole business is corrupt from the top down, with disastrous results for society. It is important to realize that what is unethical may not always be illegal (though sometimes it is both). There are many

 

 

 

 

  1. Explain the different operational areas of financial ethics.

 

Answer: Business ethics is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that arise in a business environment. It applies to all aspects of business conduct and is relevant to the conduct of individuals and entire organizations.

Business ethics has normative and descriptive dimensions.

 

As a corporate practice and a career specialization, the

 

 

4 a. Define and describe the types of internal Corporate Governance.

 

Answer: Corporate governance broadly refers to the mechanisms, processes and relations by which corporations are controlled and directed. Governance structures identify the distribution of rights and responsibilities among different participants in the corporation (such as the board of directors, managers, shareholders, creditors, auditors, regulators, and other stakeholders) and includes the rules and procedures for making decisions in corporate affairs. Corporate governance includes the processes through which corporations’ objectives are set and

 

 

 

 

  1. Describe the importance and challenges of internal Corporate Governance.

Answer: In contemporary business corporations, the main external stakeholder groups are shareholders, debtholders, trade creditors and suppliers, customers, and communities affected by the corporation’s activities. Internal stakeholders are the board of directors, executives, and other employees.

 

 

 

 

5 Consider you are the head for compliance in a bank. Explain the principles to be followed for effective functioning of compliance to your staff members.

 

Answer: The Compliance Function has to ensure strict observance of all statutory provisions contained in various legislations such as Banking Regulation Act, Reserve Bank of India Act, Foreign Exchange Management Act, Prevention of Money Laundering Act etc. as well as to ensure observance of other regulatory guidelines issued from time to time; standards and codes prescribed by BCSBI, IBA, FEDAI, FIMMDA etc; and also each bank’s internal policies and fair

 

 

 

6 Refer to any banking websites and analyse the Corporate Governance system followed by that bank.

Answer:

 

 

  • General Shareholders’ Meeting is supreme governing body of Alfa-Bank. General Shareholders’ Meeting pass decisions on principal issues of the Bank’s performance such as amendments to the Bank’s Charter, issue of

 

 

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