IB0019–GLOBAL LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

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ASSIGNMENT

 

DRIVE SPRING 2015
PROGRAM MBADS – (SEM 4/SEM 6) / MBAN2 / MBAFLEX – (SEM 4) / 

PGDIB – (SEM 2)

SUBJECT CODE & NAME IB0019–GLOBAL LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN

MANAGEMENT

SEMESTER 4
BK ID B1661
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

  1. Logistical development varies from country to country. Discuss the factors influencing logistics.

 

Answer:  Fierce competition in today’s market has forced business enterprises to invest in and focus on supply chains. The growth in telecommunication and transportation technologies has led to further growth of the supply chain. The supply chain, also known as the logistics network, consists of suppliers, manufacturing centers, warehouses, distribution centers and retail outlets, as well as raw materials, work-in-process inventory and finished products that flow between the facilities.

 

 

 

 

Q.2 Analyse and discuss market-accommodation flow with respect to operational, planning and control and behavioural context.

 

 Ans : Market accommodation flow, which reflects post-sales service administration and reverse logistics, including product recalls and recycling. Market accommodation also enables effective supply chain planning through exchanging information on sales and product use. Examples include product customization requirements, point-of-sale (POS) data, end-customer consumption, and warehouse releases. The market-focused flow provides supply chain participants with channel visibility regarding timing and location of product consumption. Improved overall planning and operations result when participants share a

 

 

 

 

 

 

Q.3 Write short notes on:

 

  1. a) Seaports in transportation infrastructure

 

Answer:Efficient transportation depends on connections between the road, rail and water. In order to move waterborne cargo quickly to or from the hinterlands, trucks and railroads need to have clear access to ports. For some ports, the weakest link in their logistics chain is at their back doors, where congested roadways or inadequate rail connections to marine terminals cause delays and raise transportation costs.

 

At its 2015 Spring Conference event in Washington, D.C., on April 21, AAPA released its 2015 The State of Freight report, in which U.S. port

 

 

 

 

  1. b) Airports in transportation infrastructure

 

Answer:The airport master plan ensures that all airside, landside and airport support facilities can improve and/or expand their operations in a coordinated manner that benefits all parties.

 

Master plans should be based on common airline and airport business development strategies. Once the master plan is determined, the facility development programs can be organized in phases, allowing modular,

 

 

 

 

 

  1. 4 How is ocean liner conferences formed? What are the types of liner associations?

 

Ans : Ocean Linear Conference:-

 

A Liner Conference can be defined as “a group of two or more vessel operating carriers which provide international liner services for the carriage of cargo on a particular route or routes within specific geographical limits and which has an agreement or arrangement within the framework of which they operate under uniform or common freight rates and any other agreed conditions with respect to the provisions of the liner services”. An ocean liner is a ship designed to transport people from one seaport to another along regular long-distance maritime routes according to a schedule. Liners may also carry cargo or mail, and may sometimes be used for other purposes (e.g., for pleasure cruises or as hospital ships).

 

 

 

 

Q.5 What are logistics intermediaries? Explain the different types of intermediaries and their strategic approaches.

 

Ans : logistics intermediaries :

 

A party who arranges shipping, warehousing, distribution and other goods movement on behalf of goods providers and shipping companies. The term third-party logistics, or 3PL, is widely used in logistics circles as also referred as a Logistics Intermediaries. They outsources the firm logistics activities to another firm that then manages the activities, without taking an ownership position in the inventories. Logistics intermediaries are typically facilitating the smooth operation of a channel for goods.  Facilitators such as freight

 

 

 

 

Q.6 Describe the various measures that must be taken while transporting the hazardous materials.

 

Ans : Safety measures for hazardous materials :

 

To ensure safe handling, everyone needs to be able to recognize hazardous material because spills happen, and people need to be prepared to respond to them properly and we all want hazardous material to be shipped safely and legally.

 

Training Requirements:

 

Each hazmat employee must be initially trained, and

 

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IB0018 – Export-Import Finance

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ASSIGNMENT

 

 

DRIVE SPRING 2015
PROGRAM MBADS (SEM 4/SEM 6) MBAFLEX/ MBAN2 (SEM 4)

PGDIB (SEM 2)

SUBJECT CODE & NAME IB0018 – Export-Import Finance
SEMESTER 4
BK ID B1910
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

Q.1. Discuss any 5 trade financing schemes by EXIM bank in brief.

 

Answer: Export-Import Bank of India is the premier export finance institution in India, established in 1982 under the Export-Import Bank of India Act 1981. Since its inception, Exim Bank of India has been both a catalyst and a key player in the promotion of cross border trade and investment. Commencing operations as a purveyor of export credit, like other Export Credit Agencies in the world, Exim Bank of India has, over the period, evolved into an institution that plays a major role in partnering Indian industries, particularly the

 

 

 

 

2  What is the need for export finance in India? Write a short note on export financing facilities in India.

Answer : Need for export finance in India

Trade Finance is a specific topic within the financial services industry. It’s much different, for example, than commercial lending, mortgage lending or insurance. A product is sold and shipped overseas, therefore, it takes longer to get paid. Extra time and energy is required to make sure that buyers are reliable and creditworthy. Also, foreign buyers – just like domestic buyers – prefer to delay payment until they receive and resell the goods. Due diligence and careful financial management can mean the difference between profit and loss on

 

 

 

 

Q3  As an exporter, what benefits you can get from Post shipment finance scheme? Discuss the types of post shipment credits.

 

Answer : Post shipment finance is provided to meet working capital requirements after the actual shipment of goods. It bridges the financial gap between the date of shipment and actual receipt of payment from overseas buyer thereof. Whereas the finance provided after shipment of goods is called post-shipment finance.

 

DEFINITION:

 

Credit facility extended to an exporter from the date of shipment of goods till the realization of the export proceeds is called Post-shipment Credit.

 

IMPORTANCE OF FINANCE AT POST-SHIPMENT STAGE:

 

 

 

 

4  Write short notes on:

 

  1. a) Export credit guarantee corporation

Answer : Export Credit Guarantee Corporation is a central government undertaking body to provide credit guarantee on the default of payments by the buyer. It works as an insurance firm who guarantees export payment, if the buyer defaults in making payment.

 

Procedures with ECGC to cover insurance:

Once after finalizing the order,

 

 

 

 

b Foreign exchange risk

Answer : Foreign exchange risk is the risk to the value of one’s assets when it is valued in another currency. The exchange rate of a currency to another may be volatile. It is this change in value of the currency that gives rise to foreign exchange risk. A depreciation in the currency in which your assets are denominated will result in a lower value of your assets when measured in another currency compared to the

 

 

 

 

Q5. There are several factors that affect the exchange rate of a country. Explain any 5 determinants of exchange rate.

Answer : Answer: Foreign Exchange rate (ForEx rate) is one of the most important means through which a country’s relative level of economic health is determined. A country’s foreign exchange rate provides a window to its economic stability, which is why it is constantly watched and analyzed. If you are thinking of sending or receiving money from overseas, you need to keep a keen eye on the currency exchange rates.

 

Factors that affect the exchange rate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6  What is custom duty? Discuss its types.

 

Answer : n economics, a duty is a kind of tax, often associated with customs, levied by a state. The term is often used to describe a tax on certain items purchased abroad.Properly, a duty differs from a tax in being levied on specific commodities, financial transactions, estates, etc., and not on individuals. Duties may be import duties, excise duties, stamp duties, death or succession duties, etc.; but income tax levied on a person is not considered a duty.

Types of Customs Duties

 

 

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IB0017 – International Business Environment and International Law

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DRIVE SPRING 2015
PROGRAM MBADS (SEM 3/SEM 5) MBAFLEX/ MBA (SEM 3) PGDPMN (SEM 1)
SUBJECT CODE & NAME IB0017 – International Business Environment and International

Law

BK ID B1909
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

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ASSIGNMENT

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

  1. Discuss the pros and cons of internationalization.

 

Answer: The Internet has made it possible for nearly any individual to open a business selling products or services. It has also broadened our horizons by making news, culture and business available from countries all over the globe. The ability to obtain inexpensive customer, administrative and manufacturing services from offshore companies is a boon for small companies unable to afford extra employees, plants and equipment at home. It has also tempted many small companies to try to expand internationally.

 

 

 

 

Q:2 Explain the relationship between law, business and international law. How is international law considered to be mixed in nature?

 

Answer: Relationship between law business and international law – International business and economic law involves the public international law and domestic law applicable to international business transactions between private parties, as well as the public international law applicable to trade and investment relations between or among states. The concerns of international economic and business law relate to the international economy, and involve sales of goods, trade in services, intellectual property licensing and protection, international finance and foreign direct investment, as well as the settlement of disputes relating thereto. This field is affiliated with international business studies and with international economic studies, and also relates to international political economy. This field also involves international organizations related

 

 

 

 

  1. Discuss the laws related to regulation and promotion of foreign trade in India.

Answer: The Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999 has come into effect on June 1, 2000 and has replaced the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973 (FERA). FEMA is a civil law. FEMA defines capital account and current account transactions, while power is delegated on Reserve Bank of India to regulate capital account transactions. FERA was a criminal law and the act was very drastic. It provided imprisonment for even a minor offense. Under this Act a person was presumed guilty unless he proved himself innocent. With liberalization, an urgent need was

 

 

 

 

4 Write short notes on:

  1. Export cartels

Answer: – Export cartels are exempted from the competition laws of most countries. While some scholars and several WTO members have recently condemned such cartels, others have argued that they allow efficiency gains that actually promote competition and trade. This paper examines the various issues involved, with special reference to developing countries and to recent discussions on trade and competition policy. After summarizing the contending views on export cartels, and also the scanty theoretical literature

 

 

 

 

  1. Customs valuation

Answer- Customs valuation in India is covered by the Customs Valuation Rules, which are modelled on the World Trade Organisation (WTO) valuation rules.

The WTO valuation rules provide that all payments made by the buyer as a condition of sale of the imported goods should be

 

 

 

 

Q:5 How does the TRIPs agreement protect IPRs? What are the 7 intellectual properties defined in TRIPs? 

Answer-

IPRs The Indian Placement Reporting Standards

 

 

Q6 .Which are the various kinds of investment treaties and how do they function?

Answer – Investment treaties – A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement establishing the terms and conditions for private investment by nationals and companies of one state in another state. This type of investment is called foreign direct investment (FDI). BITs are established through trade pacts. A nineteenth-century forerunner of the BIT is the friendship, commerce, and navigation treaty (FCN).[1]

 

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IB0015- Foreign Trade of India

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ASSIGNMENT

 

 

DRIVE WINETR SPRING 2015
PROGRAM MBADS (SEM 4/SEM 6)MBAFLEX/ MBAN2 (SEM 4) PGDIB (SEM 2)
SUBJECT CODE & NAME IB0015- Foreign Trade of India
SEMESTER 4
BK ID B1908
CREDITS 4
MARKS 60

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

  1. 1. Discuss the Heckscher-Ohlin theory of international trade.

 

Answer:An economic theory that states that countries export what they can most easily and abundantly produce. The Heckscher-Ohlin model is used to evaluate international trade, specifically trade equilibriums between countries that may have different features. The model emphasizes how countries with comparative advantages should export goods that require factors of production that they have in abundance, while importing goods that it cannot produce as efficiently.  The model was developed by two economists, Bertil Ohlin and Eli Heckscher.

 

The Heckscher–Ohlin model (H–O model) is a

 

 

 

 

 

Q.2 What is the role of services exports in recent years in India’s composition of trade? Discuss.

 

Answer : Role of services exports in recent years in India’s composition of trade

Foreign Trade is one of the significant macro fundamental variable of an economy. India till recently was predominantly a primary goods exporting and mainly an industrial goods importing country.

In 1950s, India’s share in the world trade was 1.78% which was decline to 0.59% in 1990 and continues to remain around 0.60% till now. India’s share in world exports was 0.8% in 2006.

 

  1. Composition of India’s Exports

 

Britishers strongly believed that India was a

 

 

 

 

Q3 .Discuss the trends in the principal imports of India in the last 5 years.

 

Answer : Answer:The Economy of India is the seventh-largest in the world by nominal GDP and the third-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). The country is one of the G-20 major economies, a member of BRICS and a developing economy with around 7% average growth rate since last two decades. Indian Economy become world’s fastest growing major economy from last quarter of 2014 replacing China.

 

 

 

Q.4. Write short notes on India’s trade with:

 

  1. LAC region

 

Answer: Even in literary circles, though, obstacles abounded. Neruda visited India four times. In Madras, he was impressed by Indian women and their saris, wrapped “around the body with supernatural grace, covering them in a single flame as shining silk.” But he had a falling out with Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, who in 1951 left him waiting for a long time before receiving him, and penned one of his darkest and most ominous poems, “India 1951.” The fact that India and many Latin

 

 

 

  1. Africa

 

Answer:At the center of Indo-LAC relations is the Brazil-India link. Joined by the acronym that defined the decade (BRICs, the term coined by Goldman Sachs to refer to the emerging powers of Brazil, Russia, India, and China), and despite differing interests on some key issues like agriculture, Brazil and India have together taken on the role of leading the New South —that is, the post–Cold War developing

 

 

 

Q5 What are Special Economic Zones? Write one sentence each on any 5 SEZs in India.

 

Answer : A Special Economic Zone (SEZ) is a geographical region that has economic laws that are more liberal than a country’s typical economic laws. The category ‘SEZ’ covers a broad range of more specific zone types, including Free Trade Zones (FTZ), Export processing zones (EPZ), Free Zones (FZ), Industrial Estates (IE), Free ports, Urban Enterprise Zones and others. Usually the goal of a structure is to increase foreign direct investment by foreign investors, typically an international business or a Multi National Corporation (MNC).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Q.6 What is the need and role of Focus Market Scheme? Discuss in detail.

 

Answer : Focus Market Scheme

The objective of the Focus Market Scheme is to offset the high freight cost and other disabilities to select international markets with a view to enhance our export competitiveness to these countries.

 

Exports of all products to the notified countries shall be entitled for duty credit scrip equivalent to 2.5% of the FOB value of exports for each licensing year commencing from 1st April, 2006. The scrip and the items imported against it would be freely

 

 

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Elective- Marketing Management

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Case Study Project                 

Total Marks: 100

 

Elective- Marketing Management

 

Question:  How probable consequences of a protracted price war care be avoided? Give examples of two industries making bath soaps. What consequences you foresee if such price wars are not avoided on time?

Answer :  Pricing under monopolistic and oligopolistic competition

 

Introduction

Pricing decisions tend to be the most important decisions made by any firm in any kind of market structure. The concept of pricing has already been discussed in unit . The price is affected by the competitive structure of a market because the firm is an integral part of the market in which it operates.

We have examined the two extreme markets viz. monopoly and perfect competition in the previous unit. In this unit the focus is on monopolistic competition and oligopoly, which lie in between the two extremes and are therefore more applicable to real world situations.

Monopolistic competition normally exists when the market has many sellers selling differentiated products, for example, retail trade, whereas oligopoly is said to be a stable form of a market where a few sellers operate in the market and each firm has a certain amount of share of the market and the firms recognize their dependence on each other. The features of monopolistic and oligopoly arediscussed in detail in this unit.

 

 

MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION

Edward Chamberlin, who developed the model of monopolistic competition, observed that in a market with large number of sellers, the products of individual firms are not at all homogeneous, for example, soaps used for personal wash. Each brand has a specific characteristic, be it packaging, fragrance, look etc.,though the composition remains the same. This is the reason that each brand is sold Pricing Decisions individually in the

 

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MCA3050- ADVANCED COMPUTER NETWORKS

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ASSIGNMENT

 

PROGRAM MCA(REVISED FALL 2012)
SEMESTER THIRD
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MCA3050- ADVANCED COMPUTER NETWORKS
CREDIT 4
BK ID B1650
MAX. MARKS 60

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

  1. 1. Differentiate between Physical addresses and Logical addresses.

 

Answer:In simplest terms, an address generated by the CPU is known as a logical address. Logical addresses are also referred to as virtual addresses. From the perspective of a program that is running, an item seems to be located in the address provided by the logical address. Physical address (also called the real addresses) is the address seen by the memory unit and it allows accessing a particular memory cell in the main memory by the data bus.

 

The OSI model is a good place to start to learn

 

 

 

 

 

  1. 2. Describe about DWDM. Explain the components of a basic DWDM system

 

Answer:Short for Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing, an optical technology used to increase bandwidth over existing fiber optic backbones.

 

DWDM works by combining and transmitting multiple signals simultaneously at different wavelengths on the same fiber. In effect, one fiber is transformed into multiple virtual fibers. So, if you were to multiplex eight OC-48 signals into one fiber, you would increase the carrying capacity of that fiber from 2.5 Gb/s to 20 Gb/s. Currently,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. 3. Describe about Peak cell rate (PCR) and Sustained cell rate (SCR).

 

Answer: If a service (or application) wishes to use a broadband network (an ATM network in particular) to transport a particular kind of traffic, it must first inform the network about what kind of traffic is to be transported, and the performance requirements of that traffic. The application presents this information to the network in the form a traffic contract.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. 4. Describe the following:
  2. a) Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol

 

Answer:Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a routing protocol for Internet Protocol (IP) networks. It uses a link state routing algorithm and falls into the group of interior routing protocols, operating within a single autonomous system (AS). It is defined as OSPF Version 2 in RFC 2328 (1998) for IPv4. The updates for IPv6 are specified as OSPF Version 3 in RFC 5340 (2008).

 

 

 

  1. b) Broader Gateway Routing Protocol (BGP)

Answer: Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a standardized exterior gateway protocol designed to exchange routing and reachability information between autonomous systems (AS) on the Internet. The protocol is often classified as a path vector protocol but is sometimes also classed as a distance-vector routing

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. 5. Write short notes on:

 

  1. a) Cryptography: Cryptography prior to the modern age was effectively synonymous with encryption, the conversion of information from a readable state to apparent nonsense. The originator of an encrypted message shared the decoding technique needed to recover the original information only with intended recipients

 

  1. b) Encryption:In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding messages or information in such a way that only authorized parties can read it. Encryption does not of itself prevent interception, but denies the message

 

 

  1. c) Decryption:Decryption is the reverse process to Encryption. Frequently, the same Cipher is used for both Encryption and Decryption. While Encryption creates a Ciphertext from a Plaintext, Decryption creates a Plaintext from a Ciphertext. The process of decoding data that has been encrypted into a secret format.

 

 

 

  1. d) Cryptanalysis: Cryptanalysis refers to the study of ciphers, ciphertext, or cryptosystems (that is, to secret code systems) with a view to finding weaknesses in them that will permit retrieval of the plaintext from the ciphertext, without necessarily knowing the key or the algorithm. This is known as breaking the cipher, ciphertext, or cryptosystem.

 

Cryptanalysis is the study of analyzing

 

 

 

  1. e) Cryptology:Cryptology is the mathematics, such as number theory, and the application of formulas and algorithms, that underpin cryptography and cryptanalysis. Since the cryptanalysis concepts are highly specialized and

 

 

 

 

  1. 6. Differentiate between Single server queue and Multi-server queue

 

Answer: Queueing theory is the mathematical study of waiting lines, or queues. In queueing theory a model is constructed so that queue lengths and waiting time can be predicted.Queueing theory is generally considered a branch of operations research because the results are often used when making business decisions about the resources needed to provide a service. Queueing theory has its origins in research by Agner Krarup Erlang when

 

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MCA3040- TECHNICAL WRITING

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ASSIGNMENT

PROGRAM MCA
SEMESTER 3RD
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MCA3040- TECHNICAL WRITING
CREDIT 4
BK ID B0954
MAX.MARKS 60

 

1 What’s Audience Analysis? Explain its significance in Technical Communication

Answer : In few words, audience analysis is to know more about your end-users.

 

Audience Analysis is the task to identify your target audience to make sure that the information provided in the end-user documentation is suitable for satisfying their information requirements.

 

Why should you conduct Audience Analysis?

 

 

 

 

2 Explain the role of a technical editor. Differentiate between Micro and Macro editing.

 

Answer : To understand the role of a technical editor, a person must first understand technical editing. The term, simplified and in the context of technical communication, is the process of reviewing, revising, reorganizing, and many other gerunds that begin with “re.” The goal of editing is to take an author’s work and improve it—for whatever goal that author has. The goals of each author (and of each industry) are different—

 

 

 

3 Explain the various phases involved in System Development Life Cycle (SDLC).

 

Answer : System Study

Preliminary system study is the first stage of system development life cycle. This is a brief investigation of the system under consideration and gives a clear picture of what actually the physical system is? In practice, the initial system study involves the preparation of a System proposal which lists the Problem Definition,

 

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MCA3030 – LINUX OS

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ASSIGNMENT

 

PROGRAM MCA(REVISED FALL 2012)
SEMESTER THIRD
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MCA3030 – LINUX OS
CREDIT 2
BK ID B1563
MAX. MARKS 30

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

  1. 1. Draw and explain different layers of Linux Operating System.

 

Answer:Conceptually, the Linux operating system is similar to an onion. It consists of many layers, one on top of the other. At the very core is the interface with the hardware. The operating system must know how to communicate with the hardware or nothing can get done. This is the most privileged aspect of the operating system.

 

Because it needs to access the hardware

 

 

 

  1. 2. What are run levels? Explain in detail.

 

Answer:Runlevel is a mode of operation in one of the computer operating systems that implement Unix System V-style initialization. Conventionally, seven runlevels exist, numbered from zero to six; though up to ten, from zero to nine[citation needed], may be used. S is sometimes used as a synonym for one of the levels. Only one runlevel is executed on startup; run levels are not executed one after another, i.e. either the runlevel 2, 3 or 4 is executed, not more of them sequentially or in any other order.

 

 

  1. 3. Describe the following:
  2. a) File encryption

 

Answer: File Encryption means providing security for files that reside on media, in a stored state. Those are files that are resting on our hard drives, usb drives or any other type of digital media storage. Those are files that are usually not meant to be sent through network, they are stored locally, being encrypted and temporarily

 

 

  1. b) Email encryption

 

Answer: Email encryption is encryption of email messages to protect the content from being read by other entities than the intended recipients. Email encryption may also include authentication. Email is prone to disclosure of information. Most emails are currently transmitted in the clear (not encrypted). By means of some available tools, persons other than the designated recipients can read the email contents. Email

 

 

 

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MCA3050- ADVANCED COMPUTER NETWORKS

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ASSIGNMENT

 

PROGRAM MCA(REVISED FALL 2012)
SEMESTER THIRD
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MCA3050- ADVANCED COMPUTER NETWORKS
CREDIT 4
BK ID B1650
MAX. MARKS 60

 

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

  1. 1. Differentiate between Physical addresses and Logical addresses.

 

Answer:In simplest terms, an address generated by the CPU is known as a logical address. Logical addresses are also referred to as virtual addresses. From the perspective of a program that is running, an item seems to be located in the address provided by the logical address. Physical address (also called the real addresses) is the address seen by the memory unit and it allows accessing a particular memory cell in the main memory by the data bus.

 

The OSI model is a good place to start to learn more about the differences between physical and logical addressing. Think of the physical address

 

 

 

  1. 2. Describe about DWDM. Explain the components of a basic DWDM system

                                                                                                                                                                

Answer:Short for Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing, an optical technology used to increase bandwidth over existing fiber optic backbones.

 

DWDM works by combining and transmitting multiple signals simultaneously at different wavelengths on the same fiber. In effect, one

 

 

 

 

  1. 3. Describe about Peak cell rate (PCR) and Sustained cell rate (SCR).

 

Answer: If a service (or application) wishes to use a broadband network (an ATM network in particular) to transport a particular kind of traffic, it must first inform the network about what kind of traffic is to be transported, and the performance requirements of that traffic. The application presents this information to the network in the form a traffic contract.

 

An example of traffic that requires this type of service category are variable rate, compressed video streams. Sources that use rt-VBR connections are expected to transmit at a rate that varies with time (for example, traffic that can be considered bursty). Real-time VBR connections can be characterized by a Peak Cell Rate (PCR), Sustained Cell Rate (SCR), and Maximum Burst Size (MBS). Cells delayed beyond the value specified by the maximum CTD

 

 

  1. 4. Describe the following:
  2. a) Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol

 

Answer:Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a routing protocol for Internet Protocol (IP) networks. It uses a link state routing algorithm and falls into the group of interior routing protocols, operating within a single autonomous system (AS). It is defined as OSPF Version 2 in RFC 2328 (1998) for IPv4. The updates for IPv6 are specified as OSPF Version 3 in RFC 5340 (2008).

 

OSPF is perhaps the most widely used interior

 

 

 

  1. b) Broader Gateway Routing Protocol (BGP)

Answer:Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a standardized exterior gateway protocol designed to exchange routing and reachability information between autonomous systems (AS) on the Internet. The protocol is often classified as a path vector protocol but is sometimes also classed as a distance-vector routing protocol. The Border Gateway Protocol makes routing decisions based on paths, network policies, or rule-sets configured by a network administrator and is involved in making core routing decisions.

 

BGP may be used for routing within an AS. In this

 

 

 

 

 

  1. 5. Write short notes on:
  2. a) Cryptography: Cryptography prior to the modern age was effectively synonymous with encryption, the conversion of information from a readable state to apparent nonsense. The originator of an encrypted message shared the decoding technique needed to recover the original information only with intended recipients, thereby precluding unwanted persons from doing the same. Since World War I and the advent of the computer, the methods used to carry out cryptology have become increasingly complex and its application more widespread.

 

 

 

 

  1. b) Encryption:In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding messages or information in such a way that only authorized parties can read it. Encryption does not of itself prevent interception, but denies the message

 

 

  1. c) Decryption:Decryption is the reverse process to Encryption. Frequently, the same Cipher is used for both Encryption and Decryption. While Encryption creates a Ciphertext from a Plaintext, Decryption creates a Plaintext from a Ciphertext. The process of decoding data that has been encrypted into a secret format. Decryption requires a secret key or password. Decryption is the process of converting ciphertext back to plaintext. To encrypt more than a small amount of data, symmetric encryption is used. A symmetric

 

 

  1. d) Cryptanalysis: Cryptanalysis refers to the study of ciphers, ciphertext, or cryptosystems (that is, to secret code systems) with a view to finding weaknesses in them that will permit retrieval of the plaintext from the ciphertext, without necessarily knowing the key or the algorithm. This is known as breaking the cipher, ciphertext, or cryptosystem.

 

Cryptanalysis is the study of analyzing information systems in order to study the hidden aspects of the systems. Cryptanalysis is used to breach

 

 

  1. e) Cryptology:Cryptology is the mathematics, such as number theory, and the application of formulas and algorithms, that underpin cryptography and cryptanalysis. Since the cryptanalysis concepts are highly specialized and

 

 

 

  1. 6. Differentiate between Single server queue and Multi-server queue

 

Answer:Queueing theory is the mathematical study of waiting lines, or queues. In queueing theory a model is constructed so that queue lengths and waiting time can be predicted.Queueing theory is generally considered a branch of operations research because the results are often used when making business decisions about the resources needed to provide a service. Queueing theory has its origins in research by Agner Krarup Erlang when he created models to describe the Copenhagen telephone exchange. The ideas have since

 

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MCA3010 –Financial Management and Accounting

 

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Spring 2015 ASSIGNMENT

 

Masters in Computer Application (MCA) – Semester 3

 

MCA3010 –Financial Management and Accounting

 

4 Credits (Book ID: B1624)

(60 Marks)

 

Answer All the Questions. Each question carries equal marks. (6 x 10 = 60)

 

  1. Explain the process involved in accounting. What are the objectives of accounting?

Answer :As implied earlier, today’s electronic accounting systems tend to obscure the traditional forms of the accounting cycle. Nevertheless, the same basic process that bookkeepers and accountants used to perform by hand are present in today’s accounting software.

 

ACCOUNTING CYCLE :

 

An accounting cycle is a complete sequence

 

 

  1. Briefly explain the role of management accounting. Also describe the functions of management accounting.

Answer : Management accounting is an internal business function that includes the recording and reporting of a company’s financial transactions. The accounting department also supports management in different business operations, providing analysis and support for different decisions and investments.

Financial Reporting

Management accountants work at the

 

 

 

 

  1. What is fund flow analysis? What are the objectives of analysing flow of fund?

Answer : Funds flow statement is an important financial tool, which analyze the changes in financial position of a firm showing the sources and applications of its funds. It provides useful information about the firm’s operating, financing and investing activities during a particular period. The following points highlight the importance of funds flow statement.

 

  1. Funds flow statement helps in identifying the change in level of current assets investment and current liabilities financing.

 

 

  1. What is cash flow statement and how is the cash flow statement subdivided?

 

Answer : Complementing the balance sheet and income statement, the cash flowstatement (CFS), a mandatory part of a company’s financial reports since1987, records the amounts of cash and cash equivalents entering andleaving a company. The CFS allows investors to understand how acompany’s operations are running, where its money is coming from, andhow it is being spent. Here you will learn how the CFS is structured andhow to use it as

 

 

 

  1. What are the merits of budgets?

 

Answer : Define goals and objectives

Align corporate goals with regards to markets, sales levels, margins, manning, cost levels and capital investment with your budgets.

Think about and plan for the future.

Compels management to think about the future. Management should look ahead and set out plans for each business unit, anticipating change

 

 

  1. Describe the essential features of budgetary control.

 

Answer : There are two types of control, namely budgetary and financial. This chapter concentrates on budgetary control only. This is because financial control was covered in detail in chapters one and two. Budgetary control is defined by the Institute of Cost and Management Accountants (CIMA) as:

 

“The establishment of budgets relating the

 

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