MCA3040 – Technical Writing



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Spring 2013

Masters in Computer Application (MCA) – Semester 3

MCA3040 – Technical Writing – 2 Credits (Book ID: B0955)

(30 Marks)

Answer All the Questions. Each question carries equal marks. (6 x 5 = 30)


1. What are the indicators of Excellence in Technical Communication?

Answer : Measures of Excellence in Technical Communication

There are 8 measures that characterize good technical communication.

  • Honesty-If you are dishonest to the reader they maybe defrauded, injured, or even killed.
  • Clarity-Unclear information can be dangerous, and expensive.
  • Accuracy-Inaccuracies can confuse and annoy your audience.
  • Comprehensiveness-The readers need this self contained discussion about the subject before they can use the information effectively, efficiently, and safely.
  • Accessibility-Readers must be abl



2. What’s Audience Analysis? Explain its significance in Technical Communication

Answer : Audience analysis involves gathering and interpreting information about the recipients of oral, written, or visual communication.


There are numerous methods that a technical communicator can use to conduct the analysis. Because the task of completing an audience analysis can be overwhelming, using a multi-pronged approach to conduct the analysis is recommended by most professors, often yielding improved accuracy and efficiency. Michael Albers suggests


3. Explain the preparatory stage in SME Interviews. Also explain the structure of Object and Mechanism process.

Answer : On most occasions, SMEs depend on informal sources for their funding requirements like from family, relatives or from local money lenders, writes Omit Calhan


The SME sector has emerged as a dynamic and vibrant sector of the Indian economy. The sector has performed well and has enabled the country to achieve a wide measure of industrial growth.


Making significant contributions towards employment generation and rural industrialisation, SMEs have been successful in creating 1.3 million jobs a year and employing about 60 million people.


This is among the principal reasons which make SMEs the building blocks of the Indian economy.


Further, the SME sector collectively accounts for 8 per cent of the India [ Images ]n gross domestic product and 40 per cent of India’s total exports still originate from here.


But still, most SMEs encounter numerous challenges especially during their initial days of start-up.


A common hurdle for most of them is the lack of capital support from the organised lending institutions.


On most occasions, SMEs depend on informal sources for their funding requirements like from family, relatives or from local money lenders.


However, one cannot depend on this if SMEs are seeking to achieve a larger goal of growth for itself.


This roadblock towards receiving capital has indeed slowed down the impressive SME growth story in India.


So, let’s try to understand how these issues can be addressed and how a win-win situation can be created for both the promoters and support institutions.


The private equity support


Over the years, private equity funds have emerged amongst the key drivers of growth for SMEs.


PE funds are focused on identifying a prospect company early, adding value by building it to the next level of growth and then making a planned exit at a later stage.


They are stable sources of capital and tend to have an investment horizon of 5 years with attractive returns on investment.


These firms consist of successful CEOs or investment professionals critical to the entrepreneurial ecosystem.


In addition to funds, they also provide SMEs the operating expertise, mentoring advice and guidance that helps in creating the right organisational structure for sustained growth.


In computer science, an object is a location in memory having a value and referenced by an identifier. An object can be a variable, function, or data structure. With the later introduction of object-oriented programming the same word, “object,” refers to a particular instance of a class.

Object-oriented programming [edit]


Objects in “object-oriented programming” are essentially data structures together with their associated processing routines. For instance, a file is an object: a collection of data and the associated read and write routines. Objects are considered instances of classes. In common speech one refers to a file as a class, while the file is the object. A class defines properties and behaviour once, usually for multiple instantiations. This distinction has its counterparts in other disciplines, for example in biology and evolution [1] and is known as the genus/species dichotomy.

In the domain of object-oriented programming an object is usually taken to mean an ephemeral set of attributes (object elements) and behaviours (methods or subroutines) encapsulating an entity. In this way, while primitive or simple data types are still just single pieces of information, object-oriented objects are complex types that have multiple pieces of information and specific properties (or attributes). Instead of merely being given a value, (like into =10), objects have to be “constructed”.

Mechanism [edit]


Today’s concept of “object” and the object-oriented approach to programming were introduced by the Simulate programming language originally released in 1967, made popular by Smalltalk released two years later in 1969, and became standard tools of the trade with the spread of C++ originally released in 1983.

In the “pure” object-oriented approach, the data fields of an object should only be accessed through its methods (subroutines). It is claimed that this rule makes it easy[citation needed] to guarantee that the data will always remain in a valid state. Syntactically, in almost all object-oriented programming languages, a dot(.) operator (placed between an object and its symbolic method name) is used to call a particular method/function of an object. For example, consider an arithmetic class named Arith_Class. This class contains functions like add(), subtract(), multiply() and divide(), that process results for two numbers given to them. This class could be used to find the product of 78 and 69 by first creating an object of the class and then using its multiply method, as follows:


1  into result = 1 ;                        // Initialization

 2  arith_Obj1 = new Arith_Class();         // Creating a new object of Arith_Class

 3  result = arith_Obj1.multiply(78,69);    // returned value of multiply function, store in result variable.

In a language where each object is created from a class, an object is called an instance of that class. If each object has a type, two objects with the same class would have the same data type. Creating an instance of a class is sometimes referred to as instantiating the class.


4. Explain the role of a technical editor. Differentiate between Micro and Macro editing.

Answer : To understand the role of a technical editor, a person must first understand technical editing. The term, simplified and in the context of technical communication, is the process of reviewing, revising, reorganizing, and many other gerunds that begin with “re.” The goal of editing is to take an author’s work and improve it—for whatever goal that author has. The goals of each author (and of each industry) are different




5. Explain the various phases involved in System Development Life Cycle (SDLC).

Answer : System Study

Preliminary system study is the first stage of system development life cycle. This is a brief investigation of the system under consideration and gives a clear picture of what actually the physical system is? In practice, the initial system study involves the preparation of a System proposal which lists the Problem Definition, Objectives of the Study, Terms of reference for Study, Constraints, Expected benefits of the



6. Briefly explain the major ethical issues in Technical Communication.


Answer : Ethos and the Technical Communicator

Although Aristotle’s writing, which addresses both rhetoric and ethics, can help point us towards ways of thinking about ethical communication, we need to consider carefully how we apply it to our current communication situations. Aristotle assumes an easy relationship between the ethicality of a communicator’s work and the ethos or character that s/he presents in that work. Both are judged by an audience with fairly unified values and ideas of what determined an appropriate and ethical character. Today we cannot assume that one group’s judgment represents a universally agreed-upon ethical perspective. The fragmentation of communities and standards is particularly necessary for technical communicators to acknowledge, since the




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