MK0013-Marketing Research

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SUBJECT CODE & NAME MK0013-Marketing Research
BK ID B 1711
CREDIT & MARKS 4 Credits, 60 marks



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.



Question.1. What do you mean by research? State some of its characteristics.


Answer:Research comprises “creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.” It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may also be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may





Question. 2.Why you must plan before you start researching on a topic?


Answer:A dissertation is a particular kind of academic task. You will usually be asked to generate a topic for yourself; to plan and execute a project investigating that topic; and to write-up what you did and what your findings were. Important stages in the dissertation process include:


  • Choosing a topic;
  • Developing a research question;
  • Effective planning of the research;
  • Being organised and methodical while conducting



Question. 3.Write short notes on:


  1. a) Exploratory research design


Answer:Exploratory research is research conducted for a problem that has not been clearly defined. It often occurs before we know enough to make conceptual distinctions or posit an explanatory relationship. Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data collection method and selection of subjects. It should draw definitive conclusions only with extreme caution. Given its fundamental nature, exploratory research often concludes that a perceived problem does not actually exist.





  1. b) Conclusive research design


Answer:Conclusive research design, as the name implies, is applied to generate findings that are practically useful in reaching conclusions or decision-making. Conclusive research design usually involves the application of quantitative methods of data collection and data analysis. Moreover, conclusive studies tend to be deductive in nature and research objectives in these types of studies are achieved via testing hypotheses.




Question.4.Define the term ‘sampling’ and explain the importance of sampling in marketing research.


Answer:Brooke is a psychologist who is interested in studying how much stress college students face during finals. She works at a university, so she is planning to send out a survey around finals time and ask some students to rank on a scale of 1 to 5 how stressed out they are.


But which students should she survey? All of the students at the university?Only the students in the psychology department?Only freshmen? There are a





Question.5. Analyse the steps involved in hypothesis testing.



Answer:A hypothesis test is a statistical test that is used to determine whether there is enough evidence in a sample of data to infer that a certain condition is true for the entire population.


A hypothesis test examines two opposing hypotheses about a population: the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. The null hypothesis is the





Question.6.What are the characteristics of a report?


Answer:When you write a business report, focus on the subject at hand. Information included in the document should be accurate, relevant and informative to its readers. When reading a report to gain a deeper understanding of an issue, a businessperson shouldn’t have to sift through paragraphs of filler content. A good report speaks to the reader in terms she can understand.


Clearly Defined Purpose: The purpose of a report should be clear to the reader from the beginning. The purpose should be stated in the title of the report if possible and included in the introduction. Identify whether the intent is to persuade the reader to do


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MK0012 –Retail Marketing

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PROGRAM Master of Business Administration- MBA
SEMESTER Semester 3
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MK0012 –Retail Marketing
BK ID B1723
CREDIT & MARKS 4 Credits, 60 marks



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.




Question. 1. How Retail formats can be classified? Elucidate your answer with example.


Answer:Retailers are the last link in the distribution channel and they perform various important functions, which are as follows:


(a)  Uninterrupted Supply – A retailer ensures continuous supply of products to consumers. He purchase goods in large quantity, breaks the bulk and sell in small segments to final users.

(b)  Large Variety – Retailers buy merchandise from different sources and provide a wide variety to consumers.

(c)  Financing – Some retailers provide credit facility to consumers.

(d)  Transportation – Retailers carry goods from






Question. 2. Define target marketing & what can be different types of target markets for retailers?


Answer:A target market is a group of customers a business has decided to aim its marketing efforts and ultimately its merchandise towards. A well-defined target market is the first element of a marketing strategy. Product, price, promotion, and place are the four elements of a marketing mix strategy that determine the success of a product or






Question. 3. Briefly discuss different types of retail store locations? What are their advantages & disadvantages?


Answer:A multiple shop system is a network of branch shops, situated at different localities in the city or in different parts of the country, under a centralised management and dealing in similar lines of goods. Such multiple shops are very common and popular in the West and are known as CHAIN STORES. According to J.L. Fri, “Chain stores are a group of stores handling similar lines of merchandise with single ownership and centralised location.”


The Federal Trade Commission defines a chain store as “an organisation owing a controlling interest in two or more establishments which sell




Question. 4. Explain the concept of merchandise management?


Answer: In the fierce competition of retail, it is very crucial to attract new customers and to keep the existing customers happy by offering them excellent service. Merchandising helps in achieving far more than just sales can achieve.


Merchandising is critical for a retail business. The retail managers must employ their skills and tools to streamline the merchandising process as smooth as possible.


What is Merchandising?





Question. 5. Describe Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC).Discuss the reasons for implementing IMC.


Answer:Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) is an expansion of modern and traditional marketing strategies, to optimise the communication of a consistent message conveying the company’s brands to stakeholders. Coupling various methods together is added value in creating successful communication as it harnesses the individual benefits of each channel, which when combined together builds a clearer and vaster impact than if used individually. Achieving synergy and clarity amongst the elements is then able to





Question. 6. Write short notes on:


  1. a) Market entry method


Answer:A market entry strategy is the planned method of delivering goods or services to a new target market and distributing them there. When importing or exporting services, it refers to establishing and managing contracts in a foreign country.


Many companies successfully operate




  1. b) E-tailing


Answer:E-tailing began to work for some major corporations and smaller entrepreneurs as early as 1997 when Dell Computer reported multimillion dollar orders taken at its Web site. The success of hastened the arrival of Barnes and Noble’s e-tail site. Concerns about secure order-taking receded. 1997 was also the year in which Auto-by-Tel reported that they had sold their millionth car over the Web, and CommerceNet/Nielsen Media reported that 10 million people had made purchases on the Web. Jupiter research predicted that e-tailing would grow to $37 billion by 2002.


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MK0011 –Consumer Behaviour

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PROGRAM Master of Business Administration- MBA
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MK0011 –Consumer Behaviour
BK ID B1722
CREDITS &MARKS 4 Credits, 60 marks



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.



Question.1. Briefly discuss the concept of positioning & how does it benefit a brand ?


Answer: Positioning is a marketing concept that outlines what a business should do to market its product or service to its customers. In positioning, the marketing department creates an image for the product based on its intended audience. This is created through the use of promotion, price, place and product. The more intense a positioning strategy, typically the more effective the marketing strategy is for a company. A good positioning strategy elevates the marketing efforts and helps a buyer move from knowledge of a product or service to its purchase.






Question.2. Discuss the importance of injecting emotions into advertisements. Give suitableexamples.


Answer: Advertisers talk a lot about the importance of generating an emotional response from people. However, they rarely stop to specify exactly what characterizes such a response or why they believe it is important.


Granted, this definition is not a simple task, and the lack of clarity surrounding terms such as “emotional,” “rational,” “subconscious,” etc., is a further complication. However, a review of current learning on the way emotion guides our





Question.3. Discuss the concept of brand equity & how does it benefit the company?


Answer: Brand equity is a critical part of building a business, and companies that successfully build one understand just how important it is to the bottom line. However, it takes time, patience, and a great deal of effort to build positive brand equity as you’ll learn in my new series, Brand Equity Basics.



Loyal Customers





Question.4. Discuss three component model of Attitudes. What is the relevance of this model toadvertising objectives?


Answer:Attitudes can be defined as evaluations of ideas, events, objects, or people. Attitudes are generally positive or negative, but they can also be uncertain at times. For example, sometimes we have mixed feelings about a particular issue or person. Regardless, attitudes are an important topic of study for social psychologists because they help determine what we do – what we eat, how we vote, what we do with our free time, and so on.


Affective Component






Question.5. Discuss the nature of family decision making.



Answer: The Family Life Cycle. Individuals and families tend to go through a “life cycle:” The simple life cycle goes from




For purposes of this discussion, a “couple” may either be married or merely involve living together. The breakup of a non-marital relationship involving







Question.6. Write short notes on:


  1. a) Approaches to ascertain consumer’s needs



Answer:A need is a consumer’s desire for a product’s or service’s specific benefit, whether that be functional or emotional. The emotional benefit tends to be a stronger driver for consumers, as functional benefits can be easily copied by competitors. On the other hand, a consumer want is the desire for products or services that are not





  1. b) Store image



Answer:“Store image is the image or impression of a store in the minds of customers. Good overall impression of this nature in terms of products available in the store, the store itself and the experience they expect when shopping at the store. So it can be said that the store image is actually a reflection of the overall customer to store environment.


“Store environment is an important



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MK0010 –Sales, Distribution & Supply Chain Management

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PROGRAM Master of Business Administration- MBA
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MK0010 –Sales, Distribution & Supply Chain Management
BK ID B1721
CREDITS &MARKS 4Credits, 60 marks



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.



Question.1. Briefly discuss the importance of Time and Territory management.


Answer:It is rightly said “Time and Tide wait for none”. An individual should understand the value of time for him to succeed in all aspects of life. People who waste time are the ones who fail to create an identity of their own.


What is Time Management ?


  • Time Management refers to managing





Question.2. Why relationship marketing is being used in present business scenario?


Answer:The essence of relationship marketing is a personal or emotional connection to a brand.  This connection is centered on trust that is created through the consistent delivery of a product or service that meets or exceeds customer expectations.


Corporate Culture Impacts Relationship Marketing: This trust is difficult to achieve and even harder to sustain.  Brands must recognize there are cultural implications to a successful relationship marketing strategy.  There must be





Question.3. What are the functions of a wholesaler?



Answer:Wholesaling is the buying/handling of products and services and their subsequent resale to institutional users and in some cases to final consumers. Wholesaling assumes many functions in a distribution channel, particularly those in the sorting process. Manufacturers and service providers sometimes act as their own wholesalers.


Wholesaling is a significant aspect of distribution because of its impact on the economy, its functions in the distribution channel and its relationship with suppliers and customers. In USA, wholesalers generate almost one-fifth of their total revenues from foreign markets.





Question.4. Explain the demand management model.



Answer:Demand Management is a planning methodology used to forecast [predict], plan for and manage the demand for products and services. This can be at macro levels as in economics and at micro levels within individual organizations. For example, at macro levels, a government may influence interest rates in order to regulate financial demand. At micro levels, a cellular service provider may provide free night and weekend use in order to reduce demand during peak hours.


Demand management has a defined set of processes, capabilities and recommended behaviors for companies that produce all manner of goods and services. Consumer electronics and goods companies often lead in the application of demand






Question.5. Briefly describe the different processes involved in the purchase cycle.


Answer:Management in any company must understand the art of obtaining products and services. The procurement cycle follows specific steps for identifying a requirement or need of the company through the final step of the award of the product or contract. Responsible management of public and corporate funds is vital when handling this necessary process, whether in strong or weak economic markets. Following a proven step-by-step technique will help management successfully achieve its goals.


Step 1: Need Recognition: The business must know it needs






Question.6. Write short notes on:


  1. a) Outsourcing Supply Chain Operations



Answer:Overseeing supply chain management (SCM) can be a demanding task and a serious time drainer. That’s why some companies choose to outsource their SCM and leave it to a third-party organization. While this isn’t for everyone, it can be suitable for many businesses. Here are some of the inherent risks and benefits of outsourcing SCM to help you decide if it’s right for you.


The Risks


Unanticipated Costs: At first glance,





  1. b) Co-Makership



Answer: Co‐makership is based on the principle that buyers and suppliers can gain more benefits by cooperating than by pursuing self‐interest at any cost to others. Profitability and market share are objectives that many buyers and suppliers have in common. This article recommends comakership as a way to a more secure environment of co‐operation and communication between companies and their suppliers.


Partnership  sourcing  or  co-makership  became  the  alternative  to adversarial  trading,  and  is  considered  a  more  powerful  paradigm. The



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MS – 28 – Labour Laws

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Course Code                                                      :                               MS – 28

Course Title                                                       :                               Labour Laws

Assignment Code                                            :                               MS-28/TMA/SEM – II/2016

Coverage                                                             :                               All Blocks


Note : Attempt all the questions and submit this assignment on or before 31st October, 2016 to the coordinator of your study centre.



Question.1. Explain the concept of social justice in relation to industrial jurisprudence. Describe the influence of ILO Conventions and Recommendations on Labour Legislation in India.


Answer:For the efficient functioning of a working unit an amicable environment, cooperation between the workers and the employers, reasonable remuneration and proper working condition are the prerequisites. From the laissez faire to the ‘welfare state’, the socio-economic conditions have faced drastic changes, not only in India but also across the world.


The industrial position that prevailed in the pre-independence era of India does not remain pristine. The industrial revolution in India brought with it certain inhumane as well as unjust aspects of the colonial era. To cope with these problems, industrial





Question.2. Describe the scope and coverage of the Mines Act, 1952. Discuss the enforcement of the Act and the provisions regarding working hours and limitation of employment under the Act.


Answer:Recovery of expenses.—The Central Government may direct that the expenses of any inquiry conducted by 1[a Committee constituted under section 12] shall be borne in whole or in part by the owner or agent of the mine concerned,




Question.3. Define object, scope and coverage of the Industrial Employment (standing orders) Act, 1946. What are the Acts or Omissions on the part of a workman which amount to misconduct under the Act?


Answer:What are ‘Standing Orders’ – ‘Standing Orders’ means rules of conduct for workmen employed in industrial establishments. ‘Standing orders’ means rules relating to matters set out in the schedule to the Act. [section 2(g)]. The schedule to the Act requires that following should be specified in Standing Orders –





Question.4. Distinguish between Minimum, Fair and Living wages. Explain the powers which the government can exercise under the minimum wages Act, 1948. Describe the objective of the minimum wages Act. To what extent do you think this objective has been attained?


Answer:The Minimum Wages Act 1948 is an Act of Parliament concerning Indian labour law that sets the minimum wages that must be paid to skilled and unskilled labours. The Indian Constitution has defined a ‘living wage’ that is the level of income for a worker which will ensure a basic standard of living including good health, dignity, comfort, education and provide for any contingency. However, to keep in mind an industry’s capacity to pay the constitution has defined a ‘fair wage’. Fair wage is that level of wage that not just maintains a level





Question.5. What is the object of the Employee provident Funds and Miscellaneous provisions Act, 1952? Explain the various modes in which the Central Provident Fund Commissioner can recover arrears of any amount due from any employer under section 8 of the Act?


Answer:The Employees’ Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952, permits the Central Government, subject to specified conditions, to exempt any establishment from the operation of all or any or the provisions of the scheme if the employees of such establishments are, without making any separate contribution or payment of premium, in enjoyment of life insurance benefits which are more favourable than the benefits


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BK ID B1934


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Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

QUESTION1. Define the Concept of Operations Research. Also Explain its framework.

Anwer1. Operations research, or operational research in British usage, is a discipline that deals with the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions. Further, the term ‘operational analysis’ is used in the British (and some British Commonwealth) military, as an intrinsic part of capability development, management




QUESTION2. Explain the concept of forecasting. Also Elaborate the steps involved in the forecasting process.

Answer2. A planning tool that helps management in its attempts to cope with the uncertainty of the future, relying mainly on data from the past and present and analysis of trends. Forecasting starts with certain assumptions based on the management’s experience, knowledge, and judgment. These estimates are projected into the coming months or years using one or more techniques such as Box-Jenkins models, Delphi method, exponential smoothing, moving averages, regression analysis, and trend projection. Since any error in the



QUESTION3. An organisation has three production centres P1, P2 and P3 that supply products to four warehouses W1, W2, W3 and W4. The monthly production capacities of the three production centres are 160, 150 and 190 units, respectively. The monthly demand of warehouses is 80, 90, 110 and 160 units, respectively. The transportation cost per unit (in rupees) is shown in following Table 

Discussion questions:

  1. How many units should an organisation supply to warehouses so that the total transportation cost is minimised?
  2. Calculate Total Transportation Cost


  1. Here, total production capacities of three production centres = 160 + 150 + 190 = 500 units and total demand of warehouses = 80 + 90 + 110 + 160 = 440 units.

In order to minimise the total transportation cost, both should be equal. So organisation need to supply 500 – 440 = 60 units.




QUESTION4. Explain the following criterions that a decision maker may adopt under uncertain conditions. 

  1. Maximax Criterion

Answer4a.In decision theory, the optimistic (aggressive) decision making rule under conditions of uncertainty. It states that the decision maker should select the course of action whose best (maximum) gain is


  1. Maximin Criterion

Answer4b.It is a strategy which maximizes the minimum gain (or minimizes the maximum loss). A risk adverse manager using this rule will select the option with the largest payoff based on the assumption that the


  1. Minimax Regret Criterion

Answer4c.It is a strategy which seeks to minimize the maximum possible regret ie opportunity cost that will be incurred as a result of having made the wrong decision (e.g. contribution/profit/cost savings forgone). The


  1. Realism Criterion

Answer4d.The Criterion of Realism decision rule is an attempt to make a tradeoff between complete risk indifference (as in the Maximax rule), and total risk aversion (as in the Maximin rule). With this procedure, the decision maker will decisde how much emphasis to put on each extreme. Tod do this, he must choose a Coefficient of Realism, called alpha (α), which is a decimal number between 0 and 1.



  1. Insufficient Reason Criterion

Answer4e.A principle that was first enunciated by Jakob Bernoulli which states that if we are ignorant of the ways an event can occur (and therefore have no reason to believe that one way will occur preferentially compared to another), the event will occur equally likely in any way. Keynes (1921, pp. 52-53) referred to the principle as the principle of indifference, formulating it as “if there is no known reason for




QUESTION5. Solve the assignment problem shown in the following table:

Also determine the total assignment cost.


Let us solve the assignment problem:

Step 1: We have to get at least one zero in each row and each column. For that we need to take lowest element of each individual row and subtract that from every element of that row and follow the same



QUESTION6. Elaborate the replacement of equipment that deteriorates with time. What are the limitations of replacement models?


If any equipment or machine is used for a long period of time, due to wear and tear, the item tends toworsen. A remedial action to bring the item or equipment to the original level is desired. Then the need forreplacement becomes necessary. This need may be caused by a loss of efficiency in a situation leading toeconomic decline. By efflux of time the parts of an item are being worn out and the cost of maintenance andoperation is bound to


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BK ID B1624

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QUESTION1. From the following particulars prepare a summarized Balance Sheet of a firm as on 31. 03.2016 : 

Fixed Assets to Net Worth                                              0.8 : 1

Current Ratio                                              3 : 1

Reserves included in Proprietors Fund                         25 %

Acid Test Ratio                                            3: 2

 Fixed Assets                                      Rs. 8,00,000

 Cash and Bank Balance                                      Rs. 15,000

 Current Liabilities                                                           Rs. 1,50,000

The firm has no Bank Overdraft.



FA to Net worth  =  0.8:1

Current Ratio    =  3:1




QUESTION2. Define and distinguish between Financial Accounting and Management Accounting.


Financial Accounting

Financial accounting is the process of recording, summarizing and reporting the myriad of transactions resulting from business operations over a period of time. These transactions are summarized in the preparation of financial statements, including the balance sheet, income statement and cash flow statement, that



QUESTION3. Balance Sheets of Bhaskar and Soumya Corporation are  given below :


During the year Bhaskar and Soumya introduced additional capital of Rs. 20,000 and drew  Rs. 60,000. Provision for Depreciation of Machinery – Opening Balance Rs. 2,00,000 and Closing Balance Rs. 2,20,000. No depreciation was provided on other assets. The value of Building was increased by Rs. 25,000 and the same was adjusted with Capital Account. 

Prepare Cash Flow Statement as per AS-3 Indirect method.


Bhaskar and Saumya Corporation

Cash Flow Statement 

(for the year ended 31 March 2016)



QUESTION4. a) Write a note on “Schedule of Changes in Working Capital”.

Answer4a. The information relating to the changes in current natured accounts between two periods of time presented in the form of a statement is what we call the schedule/statement of changes in working capital.

Preparing the schedule/statement of changes



  1. b) Prepare a Schedule of changes in Working Capital from the Balance Sheets given :

Answer4b.Here is the schedule of changes in working capital

Current Assets 2015 2016 Increase Decrease
Stock 77000 109000 32000  
S.Debtor 140000 170000 30000  
Bill Receivables 20000 30000 10000  



15000 10000   5000


QUESTION5. A   Ltd.  and  B  Ltd.  Sell  the  same  type  of  product  in  same  type  of  market.  Their  budgeted  Profit & Loss  for  the  year ending  2015 are  as  under :       A  Ltd.                         B  Ltd.        

Rs.                  Rs.                                 Rs.                 Rs.

Sales              1,50,000                                   1,50,000

Less :  Variable  Cost    1,20,000            1,00,000            

 Fixed  Cost              15,000              35,000            

1,35,000                                   1,35,000 

  Budgeted  Profit                           15,000                                      15,000  

  1. a) Calculate the  BEP   and     (b)   Margin  of   Safety    in   each  business,  (c)   State  which  business  is  likely  to  earn  greater  profits  in  conditions  of            (i)  heavy  demand  for  their  product    (ii)  low  demand  for  their  product 



Answer5. a.                                               A                                                B

B.E.P   =





QUESTION6. a) Distinguish between Budgetary Control and Standard Costing.

Answer6a.Standard Costing and Budgetary Control are the two systems of costing, which are quite similar to each other like both provides a benchmark which helps to compare the actual performance with the estimated figures. The two aims at controlling costs and measuring the performance by fixing targets. These two systems are neither alike nor interdependent. The former, forecasts, cost accounts but the later projects detail about financial accounts. Similarly, there are many differences between Standard Costing and Budgetary Control, which has been discussed below.



  1. b) Particulars given :

Opening Stock of Materials  –  NIL

Closing Stock of Materials  –  700 units

Materials purchased 4,000 units @  Rs. 2.50 each

Standard quantity of Materials required per tonne of finished product  –   20 units

Standard rate of Material  –  Rs. 2 Finished products for the period  –   100 tonnes 

Calculate :  I. Material Cost Variance II. Material Price Variance III. Material Usage Variance


Basic calculations to be made as follows –

(i) Actual quantity of material used = Opening Stock+ Purchase- Closing Stock

= Nil + 4000 units – 700 units



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Dear students get fully solved assignments

BK ID B1731

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Note – Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

QUESTION1. Write Short notes on 

  1. Inferential Statistics

Answer1a.Inferential statistics use a random sample of data taken from a population to describe and make inferences about the population. Inferential statistics are valuable when it is not convenient or possible to examine each member of an entire population. For example, it is impractical to measure the diameter of each




  1. Questionnaire design

Answer1b. No survey can achieve success without a well-designed questionnaire. Unfortunately, questionnaire design has no theoretical base to guide the marketing researcher in developing a flawless questionnaire. All the researcher



  1. Statistical survey

Answer1c. Statistical surveys are collections of information about items in a population. Surveys can be grouped into numerical and categorical types. A numerical survey is to get numbers as replies. For example: How many



  1. Ogives

Answer1d. In statistics, an ogive is a free-hand graph showing the curve of a cumulative distribution function. The points plotted are the upper class limit and the corresponding cumulative frequency.[4] (which, for the



  1. Histogram

Answer1e. histogram is a graphical representation of the distribution of numerical data. It is an estimate of the probability distribution of acontinuous variable (quantitative variable) and was first introduced by Karl Pearson. To construct a




QUESTION2. a. What do you mean by Probability? 

Answer2a. Probability is a branch of mathematics that deals with calculating the likelihood of a given event’s occurrence, which is expressed as a number between 1 and 0. An event with a probability of 1 can be considered a certainty: for example, the probability of a coin toss resulting in either “heads” or “tails” is 1, because there are




b.A bag contains 5 white, 6 red, 2 green and 2 black balls. One ball is selected at random from the bag. Find the probability that the selected ball is-

  1. white
  2. non-white

iii. white or green 

  1. black or red


(i)Total No. of Balls = (5+

Probability of white ball = P(E) = n(E)/n(S) = 5/15 = 1/3

(ii)Total No. of Balls =

Probability of Non-white ball = P(E) = n(E)/n(S) = 10/15 = 2/3

(iii)Probability of white


Probability of white or green balls = 1/3 + 2/15 = 7/15

(iv)Total no. black


Probability of black or red balls = 2/15+6/15 = 8/15 .


QUESTION3. What Do you mean by Sampling? Describe various Probability and Non- Probability Sampling Methods.


Sampling – In statistics, quality assurance, and survey methodology, sampling is concerned with the selection of a subset of individuals from within a statistical population to estimate characteristics of the whole population. Each observation measures one or more properties (such as weight, location, color) of observable bodies distinguished as


QUESTION4. Write short notes on

  1. Type I and Type II error

Answer4a. When you do a hypothesis test, two types of errors are possible: type I and type II. The risks of these two errors are inversely related and determined by the level of significance and the power for the test. Therefore, you should determine which error has more severe consequences for your situation before you



  1. Level of Significance


Answer4b. In hypothesis testing, the significance level is the criterion used for rejecting the null hypothesis. The significance level is used in hypothesis testing as follows: First, the difference between the results of the experiment and the null hypothesis is determined. Then, assuming the null hypothesis is true, the probability of a difference that large or larger is computed . Finally, this probability is compared to the



  1. Null Hypothesis

Answer4c. In inferential statistics, the term “null hypothesis” usually refers to a general statement or default position that there is no relationship between two measured phenomena, or no association among groups.  Rejecting or disproving the null hypothesis—and thus concluding that there are grounds for believing that there is a relationship between two phenomena (e.g. that a potential treatment has a measurable effect)—is a central task in the modern practice of science, and gives a precise criterion for rejecting a


  1. Two–tailed Tests and One–tailed Tests

Answer4d. In statistical significance testing, a one-tailed test and a two-tailed test are alternative ways of computing the statistical significance of aparameter inferred from a data set, in terms of a test statistic. A two-tailed test is used if deviations of the estimated parameter in either direction from some benchmark value are considered theoretically possible; in contrast, a one-tailed test is used if only deviations in one direction are



  1. Test Statistics

Answer4e. A test statistic is a standardized value that is calculated from sample data during a hypothesis test. You can use test statistics to determine whether to reject the null hypothesis. The test statistic compares your data with what is expected under the null hypothesis. The test statistic is used to calculate the p-value.



QUESTION5. a. Explain The concept of One Way ANOVA

Answer5a. The one-way ANOVA compares the means between the groups you are interested in and determines whether any of those means are statistically significantly different from each other. Specifically, it tests the null hypothesis:

One-way ANOVA Null Hypothesis



  1. Table given below depicts the data on production rate by five workmen on four machines. Test whether the rate is significantly different due to workers and machines


                                      Descriptives ( with 95 % Confidence Interval for Mean)



QUESTION6. a. Explain the meaning of Weighted Index Numbers.

Answer6a. When all commodities are not of equal importance. We assign weight to each commodity relative to its importance and index number computed from these weights is called weighted index numbers.



  1. Information of sales price per unit of different commodities for two different years is given in following table-

Construct the Price Index taking 2010 as the base year and 2016 as the current year by following methods. 

  1. Laspeyre’s Price Index
  2. Paasche’s Method

iii. Dorbish and Bowley’s method 

  1. Fisher’s Ideal Index Method


The computation table is as follows for getting the required price indexes –


Commodities  Price Quantity




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Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.


Q1 Explain the differences between wealth maximization and profit maximization.

Explain relation between finance and accounting

Differences between wealth maximization and profit maximization

Explanation of relation between finance and accounting


Answer: Wealth maximisation vs. profit maximisation

  • Wealth maximisation is based on cash flow. It is




Q2 Explain about the doubling period and future value. Solve the below given problem:

Under the ABC Bank’s Cash Multiplier Scheme, deposits can be made for periods ranging from 3 months to 5 years and for every quarter, interest is added to the principal. The applicable rate of interest is 9% for deposits less than 23 months and 10% for periods more than 24 months. What will be the amount of Rs. 1000 after 2 years?


Explanation of doubling period

Solving the problem

Explanation of future value


Answer: Doubling period

Doubling period is the period which makes the investment as “Doubled”, that is the amount invested fetches 100% return.

  1. Rule of 72

The initial amount of investment gets Doubled within which 72/I

Where, I = Interest Rate of the investment.


  1. Rule of 69

The amount method is found to crude logic in determining the doubling period which has its own limitations. The rule of 69 eliminates the bottleneck





Q3 Write short notes on:

  1. a) Irredeemable bonds


Answer: Irredeemable bonds or perpetual bonds

Bonds which will never mature are known as irredeemable or perpetual bonds. Indian Companies Act restricts the issue of such bonds and therefore, these are very rarely issued by corporates these days. In case of these bonds, the terminal value or maturity value does not exist because they are not redeemable. The face




  1. b) Zero coupon bonds


Zero coupon bonds

In India, zero coupon bonds are alternatively known as Deep Discount Bonds (DDBs). These bonds became very popular in India for over a decade because of issuance of such bonds at regular intervals by IDBI and ICICI. Zero coupon bonds have no coupon rate, that is, there is no interest to be paid out. Instead, these bonds are issued at a




  1. c) Valuation of Shares


Valuation of Shares

A company’s shares can be categorised into:

  • Ordinary or equity shares
  • Preference shares

The returns the shareholders receive in return are called dividends. Preference shareholders get a preferential treatment as to the payment of dividend and repayment of capital in the event of winding up. Such holders are





Q4 Explain the factors affecting Capital Structure. Solve the below given problem:

Given below are two firms, A and B, which are identical in all aspects except the degree of leverage, employed by them. What is the average cost of capital of both firms?

Details of Firms A and B

  Firm A Firm B
Net operating income EBIT Rs. 1, 00, 000 Rs. 1, 00, 000
Interest on debentures I Nil Rs.25,000
Equity earnings E Rs.1,00,000 Rs.75,000
Cost of equity Ke 15% 15%
Cost of debentures Kd 10% 10%
Market value of equity S = E/Ke Rs. 6, 66, 667 Rs.5,00,000
Market value of debt B Nil Rs.2,50,000
Total value of firm V Rs. 6, 66, 667 Rs,7,50,000

Explanation of factors affecting capital structure

Solution for the problem



Answer: Factors Affecting Capital Structure

Leverage: The use of sources of funds that have a fixed cost attached to them, such as preference shares, loans from banks and financial institutions, and debentures in the capital structure, is known as “trading on equity” or “financial leverage”. If the assets financed by debt yield a return greater than the cost of the debt, the EPS will increase without an increase in the owner’s investment. Similarly, the EPS will also increase if preference share capital is used to acquire assets. But the leverage impact is felt more in case of debt because of the following reasons:




Q5 Explain the capital Budgeting process and its appraisals

Solve the below given problem:

Given below are the details on the cash flows of two projects A and B. Compute payback period for A and B.

Cash flows of A and B

Year Project A cash flows (Rs.) Project B cash flows (Rs.)
0 (4,00,000) (5,00,000)
1 2,00,000 1,00,000
2 1,75,000 2,00,000
3 25,000 3,00,000
4 2,00,000 4,00,000
5 1,50,000 2,00,000

Explanation of capital budgeting process and its appraisals.

Solution for the problem


Answer: Capital budgeting process

After the screening of proposals for potential involvement is over, the company should take up the following aspects of capital budgeting process:

  • A proposal should be commercially viable. The following aspects are examined to ascertain the commercial viability of any investment proposal:
  • Market for the product
  • Availability of raw materials
  • Sources of raw materials




Q6 Explain the concepts of working capital. Explain the determinants of working capital.

Explanation of concepts of working capital

Explanation of determinants of working capital


Answer: Concepts of Working Capital

Gross working capital: Gross working capital refers to the amounts invested in various components of current assets. It basically refers to the current assets. This concept has the following practical relevance:

  • Management of current assets is the crucial aspect of working capital management
  • Gross working capital helps in the fixation of various areas of financial responsibility
  • Gross working capital is an important component of operating capital.



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Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

Question1. Describe the process and principles of modelling in detail.

Answer1. Process models are processes of the same nature that are classified together into a model. Thus, a process model is a description of a process at the type level. Since the process model is at the type level, a process is an instantiation of it. The same process model is used repeatedly for the development of many applications and




Question2.  a. Discuss any four applications of linear programming.

Answer2a. Four applications of linear programming are as follows:

  1. Marketing applications:
  • Main application of linear programming in marketing is “media selection”.
  • Linear programming can be used to help marketing managers allocate a fixed budget to various advertising media.
  • The main objective is to




  1. An organisation produces X1 and X2 units of products R and S, respectively. In this case, the objective function and constraints are expressed as follows:

Maximise                        Z = 60X1 + 120X2

 Subject to,                     3X1 + 6X2   ≤   240         Raw material constraint                    

                                          2X1 + 4X2   ≤   800        Labour hours constraint             

                                          X1, X2         ≥   0            Non-negativity condition

Use graphical method to determine how many units of products R and S the organisation should produce to maximise its profits.


Answer 2(b) – Here,

We have to maximise Z = 60X1 + 120X2

Subject to,

3X1 + 6X2 ≤ 240




Question3.a. Explain the concept of Trans-shipment.

Answer3(a). Transhipment is the act of off-loading a container from one ship and loading it onto another ship. In any service operated by any line there are practical restrictions in terms of coverage of ports.. There is no shipping line that can cover all ports around the world on a single service and therefore the services are segregated into trade lanes.

Let’s say there is a liner service that connects



  1. Solve the following transportation problem using North-west corner method & Matrix minimum method.












Question4. The processing time of four jobs and five machines (in hours, when passing is not allowed) is given in following table

  1. Find an optimal sequence for the above sequencing problem.
  2. Calculate minimum elapsed time & idle time for machines A, B, C, D & E.


The Processing time for the new problem is given below:





Question5. Define following criteria’s used for decision making under Uncertainty

  1. Optimism (maximax or minimin) criterion


Answer 5(a).

Maximax (Optimist)

The maximax looks at the best that could happen under each action and then chooses the action with the largest value. They assume that they will get the most possible and then they take the action with




  1. Pessimism (maximin or minimax) criterion




Maximin (Pessimist)

The maximin person looks at the worst that could happen under each action and then choose the action with the largest payoff. They assume that the worst that can happen will, and then they take the action with




  1. Equal probabilities (Laplace) criterion



Laplace criterion is also called as law of equal probabilities criterion or criterion of rationality, since probability of states of nature are not known it is assumed that all states of nature will occur in equal probability. I.e. assign an equal probability. The Laplace criterion uses all the information by assigning equal



  1. Coefficient of optimism (Hurwicz) criterion






A compromise between the maximax and maximin criteria. The decision maker is neither totally optimistic (as the maximax criterion assumes) nor totally pessimistic (as the maximin criterion assumes).




  1. Regret (salvage) criterion



The minimization of regret that is highest when one decision has been made instead of another. In a situation in which a decision has been made that causes the expected payoff of an event to be less than expected, this criterion e



Question6. Explain the following:

  1. Economic Order Quantity(EOQ)



Economic order quantity (EOQ) is an equation for inventory that determines the ideal order quantity a company should purchase for its inventory given a set cost of production, demand rate and other variables. This is done to minimize variable inventory costs, and the formula takes into account storage, or holding, costs, ordering






  1. PERT and CPM



PERT stands for Program Evaluation Review Technique, a methodology developed by the U.S. Navy in the 1950s to manage the Polaris submarine missile program. A similar methodology, the Critical Path Method (CPM) was developed for




  1. Applications of queuing models



Queueing Theory has a wide range of applications, and this section is designed to give an illustration of some of these.  It has been divided into 3 main sections, Traffic Flow, Scheduling and Facility Design and Employee Allocation.  The given examples are certainly not the only applications where queuing theory can be put to good


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