MIT202– Data Base Management System(DBMS)

 

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PROGRAM Master of Science in Information Technology(MSc IT)Revised Fall 2011
SEMESTER 2
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MIT202– Data Base Management System(DBMS)
CREDIT 4
BK ID B1479
MAX. MARKS 60

 

 

1. Explain the functions of the following

(a) Entities

(b) Attributes

(c) Relationships

 

Answer:(a) Entities

Answer: Functions, variables, named constants, special forms, and macros are described using a distinctive typographical format. Table 1-1 illustrates the manner in which Common Lisp functions are documented. The first line specifies the name of the function, the manner in which it accepts arguments, and the fact that it is a

 

(b) Attributes

Answer: The keyword __attribute__ allows you to specify special attributes when making a declaration. This keyword is followed by an attribute specification inside double parentheses. The following attributes are currently defined for functions on all targets: noreturn, noinline, always_inline, pure, const, format, format_arg, no_instrument_function, section, constructor, destructor, used, unused, deprecated, weak, malloc, and alias. Several other attributes are defined for functions on particular target systems. Other attributes,

 

 

(c) Relationships

Answer: A function is a set of rules to wich you input a value and get an output. So, the set of rules could be a human body and its complex Chemistry or the program inside a hard drive. An equation is simply two things being equal in at least one aspect. For example 3x=9 whether is 9 apples in one side and 3 groups of pears in the other side or if they’re all apples. This could occur with two variables as well, for instance y=x+3 if on one side

 

  1. 2. List and explain the important responsibilities of database manager.

 

Answer: A data administration (also known as a database administration manager, data architect, or information center manager) is a high level function responsible for the overall management of data resources in an organization.  In order to perform its duties, the DA must know a good deal of system analysis and programming.

These are the functions of a data

 

 

  1. 3. Explain the Sequential File Organization with the help of diagrams.

 

Answer: A process-data diagram is a diagram that describes processes and data that act as output of these processes. On the left side the meta-process model can be viewed and on the right side the meta concept model can be viewed. A process-

 

 

  1. 4. Explain the LIKE Predicate

 

Answer: The LIKE predicate searches for strings that have a certain pattern. The pattern is specified by a string in which the underscore and percent sign may have special meanings. Trailing blanks in a pattern are part of the pattern.If the value of any of the arguments is null, the result of the LIKE predicate is unknown.The values for match-expression, pattern

 

 

  1. 5. Explain basic operations of Relational algebra?

 

Answer: Relational database systems are expected to be equipped by a query language that can assist its user to query the database instances. This way its user empowers itself and can populate the results as required. There are two kinds of query languages, relational algebra and relational calculus. Relational algebra is a procedural query language, which takes

 

  1. 6. Explain any two features of Features of Object Oriented System.

 

Answer:For you new programmers or programmers new to OOP, this article will briefly explain the 4 major principles that make a language object-oriented: Encapsulation, Data Abstraction, Polymorphism and Inheritence. All examples will be in VB.Net, because in my opinion its easier for a new OOP programmer to read and understand at first. Certainly don’t think I’m saying you should use one .Net based language over another, as they all are based on

 

  1. 7. Write a note on the following

a)SUBSET Mapping

Answer: SUBSET Mapping.A set is a well defined collection of objects. Well-defined means, that there exists a mechanism by which one is able to determine whether a given object belongs to a particular set or not. Objects that belong to a set are called elements or members of the set. Sets are usually denoted by capital letters and lower case letters are used to represent elements. A set A is said to be a subset of a set B; if and only if, every element of set A is also an element of set B. Such a relation between sets is denoted by A ⊆ B. It can also be read as ‘A is co

 

  1. b) SUPERSET Mapping

Answer: SUPERSET Mapping. A persistent class with a superset mapping contains attributes derived from columns of multiple tables. This type of mapping is also known as table spanning. Superset mappings are used to create “view classes” that hide the underlying data model, or to map a class inheritance tree to the database using a

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MCA2010 – OPERATING SYSTEM

 

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(FALL 2014) ASSIGNMENT

 

PROGRAM Master of Science in Information Technology(MSc IT)Revised Fall 2011
SEMESTER 2
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MCA2010 – OPERATING SYSTEM
CREDIT 2
BK ID B1405
MAX.MARKS 60

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

 

1 Differentiate between Distributed Systems and Real-time Systems.

Answer : A distributed real-time system composes two challenging sets of properties which are imposed by the problem domain or the solution domain (or both.)

 

Distributed

 

A distributed system links a number of independent computing entities with local properties by way of a communication mechanism. As a consequence, algorithms and other design components must take into consideration the synchrony and the failure model. A useful summary (not entirely objective) of distributed computing concerns is included in Deutsch’s Eight Fallacies of Distributed Computing. (See this useful exposition.) All of

 

 

 

 

2 Explain the different process states.

 

Answer : A process is a program in execution. The execution of a process must progress in a sequential fashion. Definition of process is following.

A process which is Executed by the Process have various States, the State of the Process is also called as the Status of the process, The Status includes whether the Process has Executed or Whether the process is Waiting for Some input and output from the user and whether the Process is Waiting for the CPU to Run the Program after the Completion of

 

 

3 Define Deadlock. Explain necessary conditions for deadlock.

 

Answer : A deadlock is a situation in which two computer programs sharing the same resource are effectively preventing each other from accessing the resource, resulting in both programs ceasing to function. The earliest computer operating systems ran only one program at a time. Eventually some operating systems offered dynamic allocation of resources. Programs could request further allocations of resources after they had begun

 

 

 

4 Differentiate between Sequential access and direct access methods.

Answer : The hypertext and hyperlink exemplify the direct-access paradigm and are a significant improvement over the more traditional, book-based model of sequential access.

 

(Direct access can also be called random access, because it allows equally easy and fast access to any randomly selected destination. Somewhat like traveling by a Star Trek transporter instead of driving along the freeway and passing the exits one at a time, which is what you get with sequential access.)

 

In a normal, physical book, the reader is supposed

 

 

5 Differentiate between Daisy chain bus arbitration and Priority encoded bus arbitration.

 

Answer : In most mini- and mainframe computer systems, a great deal of input and output occurs between the disk system and the processor. It would be very inefficient to perform these operations directly through the processor; it is much more efficient if such devices, which can transfer data at a very high rate, place the data directly into the memory, or take the data directly from the processor without direct intervention from the processor. I/O performed in this way is usually called direct memory access, or DMA. The controller for a device

 

 

6 Differentiate between encryption and decryption. What are the two basic methods for encryption?

Answer : Encryption and decryption are both methods used to ensure the secure passing of messages and other sensitive documents and information.

 

Encryption basically means to convert the message into code or scrambled form, so that anybody who does not have the ‘key’ to unscramble the code, cannot view it. This is usually done by using a ‘cipher’. A cipher is a type of algorithm used in encryption that uses a certain described method to scramble the data. The cipher can only be ‘deciphered’ with a ‘key’. A key is the actual ‘described method’ that was used to scramble the data, and

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MC0085- ADVANCED OPERATING SYSTEMS (DISTRIBUTED SYSTEM)

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(FALL 2014) ASSIGNMENT

 

PROGRAM MCA (Revised 2007)
SEMESTER v
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MC0085- ADVANCED OPERATING SYSTEMS (DISTRIBUTED

SYSTEM)

CREDIT 4
BK ID B0967
MAX.MARKS 60

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

1 Differentiate between tightly coupled and loosely coupled systems

Answer : Loose Coupling means reducing dependencies of a class that use a different class directly. In tight coupling, classes and objects are dependent on one another. In general, tight coupling is usually bad because it reduces flexibility and re-usability of code and it makes changes much more difficult and impedes testability etc.

Tight Coupling

A Tightly Coupled Object is an object that needs to know quite a bit about other objects and are usually highly dependent on each other’s

 

 

2 Describe about Buffering. What are the four types of buffering strategies?

 

Answer : The transmission of message from one process to another can be done by copying the body of the message from the sender’s address space to the receiver’s address space. In some casses,the receiving process may not be ready to receive the message but if wants the oprating system to save that message for later  reception.Transmitted message can be stored prior to receiving process executing specific code to receive the message.

 

 

 

 

 

 

3 Define DSM. Discuss any four design and implementation issues of DSM.

 

Answer : Distributed Shared Memory Systems (DSM)

This is also called DSVM (Distributed Shared Virtual Memory). It is a loosely coupled distributed-memory system that has implemented a software layer on top of the message passing system to provide a shared memory abstraction for the programmers. The software layer can be implemented in the OS kernel or in runtime library routines with proper kernel support. It is an abstraction that integrates local memory of different machines in a network environment into a single logical entity shared by cooperating processes

 

 

4 Discuss any five features of good global scheduling algorithm

 

Answer : The decisions that the scheduler makes concerning the sequence and length of time that processes may run is called the scheduling algorithm (or scheduling policy). These decisions are not easy ones, as the scheduler has only a limited amount of information about the processes that are ready to run. A good scheduling algorithm should:

 

  • Be fair – give each process a fair share of the CPU, allow each process to run in a reasonable amount of time.
  • Be efficient – keep the CPU busy all the

 

 

5 What is replication? Discuss the three replication approaches in DFS

 

Answer : DFS Replication is an efficient, multiple-master replication engine that you can use to keep folders synchronized between servers across limited bandwidth network connections. It replaces the File Replication Service (FRS) as the replication engine for DFS Namespaces, as well as for replicating the Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) SYSVOL folder in domains that use the Windows Server 2008 domain functional level.

 

 

 

 

6 List and explain the desirable features of good naming system

Answer : A good naming system for a distributed system should have the feature described below:

 

  1. Location transparency

 

Location transparency means that the name of an object should not reveal any hint as to the physical location of the object.

 

  1. Location independency

 

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MC0084-SOFTWARE PROJECT MANAGEMENT & QUALITY ASSURANCE

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(FALL 2014) ASSIGNMENT

 

PROGRAM MCA (Revised 2007)
SEMESTER v
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MC0084-SOFTWARE PROJECT MANAGEMENT & QUALITY

ASSURANCE

CREDIT 4
BK ID B0958, B0959
MAX.MARKS 60

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

1 Differentiate between Matrix Organizational and Networked Organizational Structures.

 

Answer : The Matrix Structure

A matrix structure is the most complex of all designs because it depends upon both vertical and horizontal flows of authority and communication (hence, the term matrix). In contrast, functional and divisional structures depend primarily on vertical flows of authority and communication. A matrix structure can result in higher overhead because it creates more management positions. Other characteristics of a matrix structure that contribute

 

 

 

2 Explain any five project management activities?

 

Answer : The concept of project management originated when the pyramids were built in Cairo, Egypt. A project manager was commissioned to build a final resting place for the pharaoh, according to Reference for Business. In modern times, experts pinpoint five basic phases of project management. During these phases, small company managers assign and participate in various activities. The activities are contingent upon the company’s industry and what it sells, but the planning and execution processes

 

 

3 Explain waterfall and spiral life cycle model.

 

Answer : Waterfall lifecycle model

 

Waterfall model is the most well known software lifecycle development model. It is very simple to understand and use. Each

next phase in this model must beginning only after the previous phase is over.

Waterfall software development model may b

 

 

4 Explain any five software cost estimation methods.

 

Answer :1) Expert Judgment Method

Expert judgment techniques involve consulting with software cost estimation expert or a group of the experts to use their experience and understanding of the proposed project to arrive at an estimate of its cost.

Generally speaking, a group consensus technique, Delphi technique, is the best way to be used. The strengths and weaknesses are

 

 

 

2) Estimating by Analogy

 

Estimating by analogy means comparing the proposed project to previously completed similar project where the project development information id known. Actual data from the completed projects are extrapolated to estimate the proposed project. This method can be used either at system-level or at the component-level.

Estimating by analogy is relatively straightforward. Actually in some respects, it is a systematic form of expert judgment since experts often search for

 

 

 

 

4) Bottom-up Estimating Method

 

Using bottom-up estimating method, the cost of each software components is estimated and then combine the results to arrive at an estimated cost of overall project. It aims at constructing the estimate of a system from the knowledge accumulated about the small software components and their interactions. The leading method using this approach is COCOMO’s detailed model.

The advantages:

 

  • It permits the software group to handle

 

 

 

5)Algorithmic Method

 

General discussion

 

The algorithmic method is designed to provide some mathematical equations to perform software estimation. These mathematical equations are based on research and historical data and use inputs such as Source

 

 

 

 

5 What is Six Sigma? Why is it required? Explain the steps for (IEEE) process improvement.

 

Answer : Six Sigma is a management philosophy developed by Motorola that emphasizes setting extremely high objectives, collecting data, and analyzing results to a fine degree as a way to reduce defects in products and services. The Greek letter sigma is sometimes used to denote variation from a standard. The philosophy behind Six Sigma is that if you measure how many defects are in a process, you can figure out how to systematically eliminate them and get as close to perfection as possible. In order for a company to achieve Six Sigma, it cannot produce more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities, where an

 

 

6 Differentiate between Integration Testing and System Testing.

 

Answer : Integration testing tests integration or interfaces between components, interactions to different parts of the system such as an operating system, file system and hardware or interfaces between systems.

Also after integrating two different

 

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MC0083-OBJECT ORIENTED ANALYSIS & DESIGN USING UML

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(FALL 2014) ASSIGNMENT

 

PROGRAM MCA (Revised 2007)
SEMESTER v
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MC0083-OBJECT ORIENTED ANALYSIS & DESIGN USING UML
CREDIT 4
BK ID B0969
MAX.MARKS 60

 

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

1 Differentiate between Object and Composite Object

Answer : Objective-C is general-purpose language that is developed on top of C Programming language by adding features of Small Talk programming language making it an object-oriented language. It is primarily used in developing iOS and Mac OS X operating systems as well as its applications.

 

Initially, Objective-C was developed by NeXT for its NeXTSTEP OS from whom it was taken over by Apple for its iOS and Mac OS X.

 

 

 

 

2 What is Inheritance? Explain multiple Inheritance.

Answer : As the name inheritance suggests an object is able to inherit characteristics from another object. In more concrete terms, an object is able to pass on its state and behaviors to its children. For inheritance to work the objects need to have characteristics in common with each other.

 

For example, let’s say we make a class called “Human” that represents our physical characteristics. It’s a generic class that could represent you, me or anyone in the world. Its state keeps track of things like number of legs, number of

 

 

3 What is the use of a Use case diagram? Differentiate the terms Use case and Actor.

Answer : To model a system the most important aspect is to capture the dynamic behaviour. To clarify a bit in details, dynamic behaviour means the behaviour of the system when it is running /operating.

 

So only static behaviour is not sufficient to model a system rather dynamic behaviour is more important than static behaviour. In UML ther

 

 

 

 

 

4 Explain the Booch and Jacobson Methodologies.

 

Answer : The Booch Methodology

 

The Booch software engineering methodology [#!booch!#]   provides an object-oriented development in the analysis and design phases. The analysis phase is split into steps. The first step is to establish the requirements from the customer perspective. This analysis step generates a high-level description of the system’s function and structure. The second step is a domain analysis. The domain analysis is accomplished by defining object classes; their attributes, inheritance, and methods. State diagrams for the objects are then established. The analysis phase is completed with a validation step. The analysis phase iterates

 

 

 

5 Describe the scope of UML? What are the importance of UML process?

Answer : Scope of the UML:

 

The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a language for specifying, constructing, visualizing, and documenting the artifacts of a software-intensive system.

 

First and foremost, the Unified Modeling Language fuses the concepts of Booch, OMT, and OOSE. The result is a single, common, and widely usable modeling language for users of these and other methods.

 

Secondly, the Unified Modeling Language

 

 

 

6 What are the different types of actions? Explain about Collaborations.

Answer : Different kinds of actions in Struts

 

The different kinds of actions are done by the following:

DispatchAction, ActionDispatcher , LookupDispatchAction.

 

DispatchAction:

 

One of the built-in actions provided by the struts framework. The collection of related functions into a single Action is possible using this action. It allows eliminating the creation of multiple independent actions for each function.

 

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MC0082- THEORY OF COMPUTER SCIENCE

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FALL 2014, ASSIGNMENT

 

PROGRAM MCA(REVISED FALL 2007)
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MC0082- THEORY OF COMPUTER SCIENCE
SEMESTER 5TH SEM
CREDITS 4
MAX. MARKS 60
BK ID

 

B0970

 

 

 

Answer all questions

 

1 Differentiate between Recursive Functions and growth functions.

 

Answer : What’s a Recursive Function?

 

Technically, a recursive function is a function that makes a call to itself. To prevent infinite recursion, you need an if-else statement (of some sort) where one branch makes a recursive call, and the other branch does not. The branch without a recursive call is usually the base case (base cases do not make recursive calls to the function).

Functions can also be mutually recursive. For example, function f() can call function g() and function g() can call function f(). This is still considered re

 

 

 

  1. Describe direct and indirect proof techniques.

 

Ans : Direct proof :

 

In mathematics and logic, a direct proof is a way of showing the truth or falsehood of a given statement by a straightforward combination of established facts, usually existing lemmas and theorems, without making any further assumptions. In order to directly prove a conditional statement of the form “If p, then q”, it suffices to consider the situations in which the statement p is true. Logical deduction is employed to reason from assumptions to conclusion. The type of logic employed is almost invariably first-order

 

 

 

  1. Discuss about Walks and Paths in Trees

 

Ans :  Walks and Paths in Trees :

 

In the mathematical field of graph theory, a path graph or linear graph is a particularly simple example of a tree, namely a tree with two or more vertices that is not branched at all, that is, contains only vertices of degree 2 and 1. In particular, it has two terminal vertices (vertices that have degree 1), while all others (if any) have degree 2.

A path in a graph is a sequence of vertices such that from each of its vertices there is an edge to the next vertex in the sequence. A path may

 

 

 

  1. What is DFA? Discuss about Transition System.

 

Ans :  DFA :

 

In automata theory, a branch of theoretical computer science, a deterministic finite automaton (DFA)—also known as deterministic finite state machine—is a finite state machine that accepts/rejects finite strings of symbols and only produces a unique computation (or run) of the automaton for each input string.’Deterministic’ refers to the uniqueness of the computation. In search of simplest models to capture the finite state machines, McCulloch and Pitts were among the first researchers to introduce a concept similar to finite automaton in 1943.

The figure on the right illustrates a

 

 

  1. Differentiate between Moore machine and Mealy machine.

 

Ans :  Moore machine :

 

In the theory of computation, a Moore machine is a finite-state machine whose output values are determined solely by its current state. This is in contrast to a Mealy machine, whose output values are determined both by its current state and by the values of its inputs. The Moore machine is named after Edward F. Moore, who presented the concept in a 1956 paper, “Gedanken-experiments on Sequential Machines.

A Moore machine can be defined as a 6-tuple ( S, S0, Σ, Λ, T, G ) consisting of the following:

a finite set of states ( S )

 

 

 

  1. Define context-free grammar. What is an ambiguous grammar? Explain with an example.

 

Ans : Ambiguous grammer :

 

In computer science, an ambiguous grammar is a formal grammar for which there exists a string that can have more than one leftmost derivation, while an unambiguous grammar is a formal grammar for which every valid string has a unique leftmost derivation. Many languages admit both ambiguous and unambiguous grammars, while some languages admit only ambiguous grammars. Any non-empty language admits an ambiguous

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MC0081- .(DOT)NET TECHNOLOGIES

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Assignment

 

DRIVE FALL 2007
PROGRAM MCA
SEMESTER V
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MC0081- .(DOT)NET TECHNOLOGIES
BK ID B0974
CREDIT & MARKS 4 CREDITS & 60 MARKS

 

1 List and explain the features of .Net platform. What are the benefits of Assemblies in the .NET Framework?

Answer: .NET is the framework for which we develop applications.  It sits in between our application programs and operating system. Applications developed for .NET run inside .NET and are controlled by .NET. It supports both Windows and web applications.

 

Features of .Net platform:

 

Assemblies

 

2 Write short notes on:

  1. a) Web service clients

Answer: This module provides an interface to consume external web services. It focuses on integrating web service operations as Rules actions, but can also be used as data provider for other modules.

 

WS Client comes with a user interface that allows site administrators to create REST and SOAP service descriptions with their respective operations

 

 

 

  1. b) Web service proxies.

Answer: A client and a Web service can communicate using SOAP messages, which encapsulate the input and output parameters as XML. A proxy class maps parameters to XML elements and then sends the SOAP messages over a network. In this way, the proxy class frees you from having to communicate with the Web service at the SOAP level and allows you to invoke Web service methods in any development environment that supports SOAP and

 

 

3 Describe about IIS Request Processing Models and IIS services.

Answer: Worker process isolation mode is the new IIS request processing model. In this application isolation mode, you can group Web applications into application pools, through which you can apply configuration settings to the worker processes that service those applications. An application pool corresponds to one request routing queue within

 

 

 

4 Discuss the following:

  1. a) Forms Authentication

Answer: Forms authentication lets you authenticate users by using your own code and then maintain an authentication token in a cookie or in the page URL. Forms authentication participates in the ASP.NET page life cycle through the Forms Authentication Module class. You can access forms authentication information and capabilities through the Forms Authentication class.

To use forms authentication, you create a login page that collects credentials from the user and that includes code to authenticate the credentials. Typically you configure the application to redirect requests to the login page

 

 

 

  1. b) Windows Authentication

Answer: Authentication is the process of determining the identity of a user based on the user’s credentials. The user’s credentials are usually in the form of user ID and password, which is checked against any credentials’ store such as database. If the credentials provided by the user are valid, then the user is considered an

 

 

 

5 Describe the steps involved in creating classes and objects with the help of a program in C#.

Answer: A class is a construct that enables you to create your own custom types by grouping together variables of other types, methods and events. A class is like a blueprint. It defines the data and behavior of a type. If the class is not declared as static, client code can use it by creating objects or instances which are assigned to a variable. The

 

 

6 Design a simple Window based form application to perform basic arithmetic operations

Answer: Arithmetic operators are used to perform many of the familiar arithmetic operations that involve the calculation of numeric values represented by literals, variables, other expressions, function and property calls, and constants. Also classified

 

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QM0022: TQM TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES

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Assignment

 

DRIVE FALL 2014
PROGRAM MBA
SEMESTER 3
SUBJECT CODE & NAME QM0022: TQM TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES
BK ID B1929
CREDIT & MARKS 4 CREDITS & 60 MARKS

 

Note: Answer all questions. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

1 Describe the principles of Total Quality Management (TQM).

Answer: The basic principles for the Total Quality Management (TQM) philosophy of doing business are to satisfy the customer, satisfy the supplier, and continuously improve the business processes.

 

Satisfy the customer

The first and major TQM principle is to

 

 

2  List the seven basic quality control tools. Describe any three of them.

Answer: The Seven Basic Tools of Quality is a designation given to a fixed set of graphical techniques identified as being most helpful in troubleshooting issues related to quality. They are called basic because they are suitable for people with little formal training in statistics and because they can be used to solve the vast majority of quality-related issues.

 

 

 

 

 

3 Give the meaning of the following:

(a) Quality Circle

Answer: A quality circle is a group of workers who do the same or similar work, who meet regularly to identify, analyze and solve work-related problems. Normally small in size, the group is usually led by a supervisor or manager and presents its solutions to management; where possible, workers implement the solutions themselves in order to

 

 

(b) Continuous Improvement Process

Answer: A continual improvement process, also often called a continuous improvement process (abbreviated as CIP or CI), is an ongoing effort to improve products, services, or processes. These efforts can seek “incremental” improvement over time or “breakthrough” improvement all at once.[1] Delivery (customer valued) processes are constantly evaluated and improved in the light of their efficiency, effectiveness and flexibility.

 

 

(c) Reliability

Answer: Reliability may refer to:

  • Human reliability
  • Reliability engineering, the ability of a system or component to perform its required functions under stated conditions for a specified period of time.
  • Reliability (psychometrics

 

(d) Business Process Reengineering

Answer: Business process re-engineering is a business management strategy, originally pioneered in the early 1990s, focusing on the analysis and design of workflows and business processes within an organization. BPR aimed to help organizations fundamentally rethink how they do their work in order to dramatically improve customer

 

(e) Poka Yoke

Answer: Poka-yoke is a Japanese term that means “mistake-proofing”. A poka-yoke is any mechanism in a lean manufacturing process that helps an equipment operator avoid (yokeru) mistakes (poka). Its purpose is to eliminate product defects by preventing, correcting, or drawing attention to human errors as they occur. The concept was

 

 

 

 

 

4 Define ‘Six Sigma Methodology’. What are the key roles in Six Sigma methodologies? Explain DMAIC methodology of Six Sigma.

Answer: Six Sigma is a set of techniques and tools for process improvement. It was developed by Motorola in 1986. Jack Welch made it central to his business strategy at General Electric in 1995.Today; it is used in many industrial sectors.

 

Six Sigma seeks to improve the quality of process outputs by identifying and removing the causes of defects (errors) and minimizing

 

  1. What is ‘FMEA’? Explain the concept of ‘Risk Priority Number’.

Answer: Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a systematic, proactive method of evaluating a process. An FMEA identifies the opportunities for failure, or “failure modes,” in each step of the process. Each failure mode gets a numeric score that quantifies (a) likelihood that the failure will occur, (b) likelihood that the failure will not be detected, and (c) the amount of harm or damage the failure mode may cause to a person or to equipment. The product of these three scores is the Risk Priority Number (RPN) for that failure mode. The sum of the

 

 

 

6Write short notes on the following:

(a) Design of Experiments

Answer: In general usage, design of experiments (DOE) or experimental design is the design of any information-gathering exercises where variation is present, whether under the full control of the experimenter or not. However, in statistics, these terms are usually used for controlled experiments. Formal planned

 

(b) Just – In – Time (JIT)

Answer: Just in time (JIT) is a production strategy that strives to improve a business’ return on investment by reducing in-process inventory and associated carrying costs. Just in time is a type of operations management approach which originated in Japan in the 1950s. It was adopted by Toyota and other Japanese manufacturing firms, with excellent results: Toyota and other companies that adopted the approach ended up

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QM0021: Statistical Process Control

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Assignment

 

DRIVE FALL 2014
PROGRAM MBA
SEMESTER 3
SUBJECT CODE & NAME QM0021: Statistical Process Control
BK ID B1928
CREDIT & MARKS 4 CREDITS & 60 MARKS

 

Note: Answer all questions. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

1(a) What are the two main causes of variation? Explain.

Answer: Two causes of variation:

There are two forms of variation: continuous and discontinuous variation. Characteristics showing continuous variation vary in a general way, with a broad range, and many intermediate values between the extremes. As a matter of fact, if you consider a large enough sample from a population, perhaps plotting frequency as a histogram or as a

 

 

(b) Define the term ‘processes. Give an example of process.

Answer: Sequence of interdependent and linked procedures which, at every stage, consume one or more resources (employee time, energy, machines, money) to convert inputs (data, material, parts, etc.) into outputs. These outputs then serve as inputs for the next stage until a known goal or end result is reached.

 

 

 

 

2(a) What is meant by Standard Deviation?

Answer: In statistics and probability theory, the standard deviation (SD) (represented by the Greek letter sigma, σ) measures the amount of variation or dispersion from the average. A low standard deviation indicates that the data points tend

 

(b) Calculate the standard deviation of the following data, which represents the number of defective products by a machine: 4, 2, 5, 8 and 6

Answer:

Total Numbers: 5

Mean (Average): 5

Standard deviation: 2.

 

 

3a) Give the meaning of the following basic terminologies in Probability:

(i) Sample Space

Answer: The sample space of an experiment or random trial is the set of all possible outcomes or results of that experiment.A sample space is usually denoted using set notation, and the possible outcomes are listed as elements in the set. It is common to refer to a sample space by the labels S, Ω, or U (for “universal set”).

 

 

 

 

  1. ii) Mutually Exclusive events

Answer: Two events are mutually exclusive if they cannot occur at the same time. An example is tossing a coin once, which can result in either heads or tails, but not both.

In the coin-tossing example,

 

 

  1. b) Mention the properties of probability

Answer:

 Property 1:

If A is an outcome in a sample space S, then

P(A) > 0

 

Property 2:

 

 

  1. c) Define the term ‘random variable’

Answer: A random variable, aleatory variable or stochastic variable is a variable whose value is subject to variations due to chance .A random variable can take on a set of possible different values (similarly to other mathematical variables), each with an associated probability, in contrast to other mathematical variables.

 

 

 

 

4(a) Differentiate between accuracy and precision.

Answer: Accuracy and precision are defined in terms of systematic and random errors. The more common definition associates accuracy with systematic errors and precision with random errors. Another definition, advanced by ISO, associates trueness with systematic errors and precision with random errors, and defines accuracy as the combination of both trueness and precision.

 

A measurement system can be

 

 

(b) Write a brief note on ‘Funnel Experiment’

Answer: The Funnel Experiment was devised by Dr. Deming to describe the adverse effects of tampering with a process by making changes to it without first making a careful study of the possible causes of the variation in that process.

 

In the experiment, a marble is dropped through a funnel onto a sheet of paper, which contains a target. The objective of the process is to get the marble to come to a stop as close to the target as possible. The experiment uses several methods to attempt to manipulate the funnel’s location to achieve the objective.

 

 

5 Define the terms: ‘process capability’ and ‘process stability’. Explain Cp index and Cpk index.

Answer: A process is a unique combination of tools, materials, methods, and people engaged in producing a measurable output; for example a manufacturing line for machine parts. All processes have inherent statistical variability which can be evaluated by statistical methods.

 

The Process Capability is a measurable property of a process to the specification, expressed as a process capability index (e.g., Cpk or Cpm) or as a process performance index (e.g., Ppk or Ppm). The output of this measurement is usually illustrated by

 

 

  1. Give the meaning of the following:
  2. i) Hypothesis testing

Answer: A statistical hypothesis is a scientific hypothesis that is testable on the basis of observing a process that is modeled via a set of random variables. A statistical hypothesis test is a method of statistical inference used for testing a statistical hypothesis.

 

A test result is called statistically significant if it has been predicted as unlikely to have occurred by chance alone, according to a

 

  1. ii) Control chart

Answer: Control charts, also known as Shewhart charts (after Walter A. Shewhart) or process-behavior charts, in statistical

 

iii) Experimental design

Answer: In an experiment, we deliberately change one or more process variables (or factors) in order to observe the effect the changes

 

 

 

  1. iv) Acceptance Sampling

Answer: Acceptance sampling uses statistical sampling to determine whether to accept or reject a production lot of material. It has been a common quality control technique used in industry. It is usually done as products leave the factory, or in some cases even within the factory. Most often a producer supplies a consumer

 

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QM0019: FOUNDATIONS OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT

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Assignment

 

DRIVE FALL 2014
PROGRAM MBA
SEMESTER 3
SUBJECT CODE & NAME QM0019: FOUNDATIONS OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT
BK ID B1926
CREDIT & MARKS 4 CREDITS & 60 MARKS

 

Note: Answer all questions. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

 

1(i) Various experts and pioneers of quality management have defined the term quality in different ways. Mention some of such definitions of ‘quality’.

Answer: Customer – based

“Quality consists of the capacity to satisfy wants.”(C.D. Edwards, “The Meaning of Quality”, in Quality Progress Oct.1968)

“Quality is fitness for use.”

 

  1. Manufacturing – based

“Quality is the degree to which a specific product conforms to a design or specification” (H.L. Gilmore: Product Conformance Cost. Quality progress June

 

 

2 Explain the contributions of the following quality gurus towards quality management:

(a) Kaoru Ishikawa

Answer: Kaoru Ishikawa was a Japanese organizational theorist, Professor at the Faculty of Engineering at The University of Tokyo, noted for his quality management innovations. He is considered a key figure in the development of quality initiatives in Japan, particularly the quality circle. He is best known outside Japan for the Ishikawa or cause and effect diagram (also known as fishbone diagram) often used in the analysis of industrial processes.

 

 

 

 

(b) Genichi Taguchi

Answer: Genichi Taguchi (January 1, 1924 – June 2, 2012) was an engineer and statistician. From the 1950s onwards, Taguchi developed a methodology for applying statistics to improve the quality of manufactured goods. Taguchi methods have been controversial among some conventional Western statisticians, but others have accepted many of the concepts introduced by him as valid extensions to the body of knowledge.

 

 

 

 

 

3(i) Define the term ‘Strategic Quality Management’ and explain its concept in brief.

Answer: Supply chain management (SCM) is “the systemic, strategic coordination of the traditional business functions and the tactics across these business functions within a particular company and across businesses within the supply chain, for the purposes of improving the long-term performance of the individual companies and the supply chain as a whole.” It has also been defined as the “design, planning, execution, control, and

 

 

(ii) What is meant by Quality policy? Explain with an example.

Answer: Quality policy: The quality policy is the only true definition of quality that counts in your organisation. Provided that you take into account the few important items the standard asks for, you can define and measure quality any way you choose.

  • Make sure the policy builds on current corporate objectives and values
  • It must be fully integrated with those

 

4 What is meant by Customer focus? Explain ‘Customer Perception of Quality’ in brief.

Answer: A business that has a “customer focus” is one which takes the time and trouble to understand and address customer needs.

 

A customer is anyone who buys a product – either a good or a service – from a business.  A customer will be satisfied with his/her purchase if the product meets the customer’s needs. So it is essential that a business has a good understanding of what customers want and need from a product. If customer needs are met, then the customer is generally satisfied.

 

5 Write short notes on the following:

(a) Knowledge Management

Answer: Knowledge management (KM) is the process of capturing, developing, sharing, and effectively using organisational knowledge. It refers to a multi-disciplined approach to achieving organisational objectives by making the best use of knowledge.

 

An established discipline since 1991 KM includes courses taught in the fields of business administration, information systems, management, and library and information sciences (Alavi & Leidner 1999). More recently, other fields have started contributing to KM research; these include information and media, computer science, public health,

 

(b) Quality Awards

Answer: “Quality” represents the extent to which a good/service meets or exceeds   expectations

  • Overall Quality
  • Quality along many dimensions

Term used for today’s new concept of quality is total quality management

  • Quality awards: special recognition
  • Strive for excellence

 

 

6 Explain the following in brief:

(a) Quality audits

Answer: Quality audit is the process of systematic examination of a quality system carried out by an internal or external quality auditor or an audit team. It is an important part of organization’s quality management system and is a key element in the ISO quality system standard, ISO 9001.

 

Quality audits are typically performed at predefined time intervals and ensure that the institution has clearly defined internal system

 

 

(b) Productivity

Answer: Productivity is an average measure of the efficiency of production. It can be expressed as the ratio of output to inputs used in the production process, i.e. output per unit of input.

 

When all outputs and inputs are included in the productivity measure it is called total productivity. Outputs and inputs are defined in the total productivity measure as their economic values. The value of outputs minus the

 

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