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COURSE :  MBA 4th Semester                                    


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Total Marks : 80


Q.1. Describe what is meant by a business being ‘consumer led’.

Answer:-consumer-led is responding to the needs of consumers in the market. Example: NIVEA is a consumer-led business which made it one of the largest skin care brands in the world. In a broad sense it’s a guiding philosophy, whereby a ‘known customer’ is placed at the heart of every decision a company takes. The principle of a known


Q.2 What are the key parts of the marketing mix? Explain how each works with the others.

Answer:-Marketing Mix:-

Description The Marketing Mix model (also known as the 4 P’s) can be used by marketers as a tool to assist in implementing the marketing strategy. Marketing managers use this method to attempt to generate the optimal response in the target market by blending 4 (or 5, or 7) variables in an optimal way. It is important to understand that the Marketing Mix principles are controllable variables. The Marketing Mix can be adjusted on a frequent basis


  1. Explain why the balance of the marketing mix is as important as any single element. marketing objective and marketing mix vary across the PRODUCT TYPE and  Product Life Cycle.

PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE:- Products pass through a series of stages. Successful products progress through four basic stages: (1) Introduction; (2) Growth; (3) Maturity; and (4) Decline.

The product life cycle concept provides important insights about developments at the various stages of the product’s life. Knowledge that profits assume a predictable pattern through the stages and that promotional emphasis should shift from product information in the early stages to product promotion in the later stages should allow the m


  1. Analyse the marketing mix for NIVEA VISAGE Young. What are its strongest points? Explain why you think this is so


The first stage in building an effective mix is to understand the market. NIVEA uses market research to target key market segments which identifies groups of people with the same characteristics such as age/gender/attitude/lifestyle. The knowledge and understanding from the research helps in the development of new products. NIVEA


Case Study -2

SWOT Analysis in action at SKODA

  1. What was the key weakness that Skoda was able to identify?

Answer :  The SWOT analysis was used by Skoda to identify its weaknesses. One of the greatest weakness identified, which affect the success of the company is its small market share. Skoda only holds 1.7 percent market share. Because of this, Skoda remains a small player in the car manufacturing market. Through the SWOT analysis, management was able to identify this weakness and also the causes of this weakness. Skoda’s

  1. What strength did Skoda use to turn its brand weakness into an opportunity?

Answer : The strengths of Skoda were identified and assessed by conducting a SWOT analysis. The company conducted a research involving consumers in order to find out the strengths of its products and brand. Surveys were also used. The strength of the company and its products lie in its focus on experience rather than on sales. Meaning, the company makes sure that there is “human touch” in the production and manufacture of its cars and make sure that the consumers feel it. Because of this strength, Skoda was listed as one of the top five manuf



  1. How has Skoda strategically addressed external threats?

Answer : Through the SWOT analysis, the company was able to identify the external threats that may affect the company’s standing in the market and success. One of the biggest threats to Skoda is intense competition in the European car




  1. What in your view are the important benefits of using aSWOT analysis?

Answer : It is clear from the case study, the SWOT analysis have been helpful in creating and formulating strategies for the company. The company relied on SWOT analysis in getting a clear picture of where the company is now and where the company wants to go. The SWOT analysis, provided information about the strengths of the company, which they can use to build a strategic advantage over and a point of difference from its competitors. The SWOT analysis was






Case-3 : Marketing strategy for growth

Answer the following questions

  1. What is the difference between primary and secondary research? Identify one example of primary and research carried out by Wilkinson.

Answer : Market research is vital for collecting data on which to base the strategy. Market research takes one of two main forms primary research and secondary research.

  • Primary research (also called field research) involves collecting data first hand. This can take many forms, the main ones being interview,



  1. Explain why Wilkinson needed a marketing strategy to help them to grow.

Answer : To grow, a business needs to give consumers what they want, at a price they are satisfied with, when they want it and make a profit for the company. Wilkinson commissioned market research which identified key potential for growth in the student sector. It had to develop a strategy for growth that not only covered the specific requirements of this target group, but also linked closely with the company’s overall aims and objectives.



  1. Evaluate the benefits of the marketing campaign to Wilkinson.

Answer : The campaign showed that:

  • awareness of Wilkinson brand had significantly risen from 77% to 95% of those interviewed. This brought it in line with Morrison supermarkets, a key competitor.
  • 17% of students who received a goody bag at freshers” fairs used the 15% discount voucher. A further 58% intended to use the voucher. The campaign had either got students to enter the Wilkinson stores or increase their intention to visit the store.


  1. Analyse how effective the marketing campaign was in helping

Answer : The campaign showed significant increase in students’ levels of awareness about Wilkinson and its products.

It encouraged them either to shop more or to try


Case-4 : Extending the product life cycle


Answer the following questions:

  1. Using current products familiar to you, draw and label a product life cycle diagram, showing which stage each product is at.

Answer : A          B          C





  1. Suggest appropriate aims and objectives for a small, medium and large business.

Answer : Aims and objectives for a small business.

Aim for a small business can “Survival”, to survive in the market and look for profits.


Aims and objectives for a  medium  business.


  1. Consider the decision taken by Kellogg to opt for product development. Suggest a way in which itcould have diversified instead. Justify your answer.



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COURSE :  MBA 2nd semester                                   Total Marks : 80


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CASE – 1

(a) What was the critical catalyst that led Kodak to start taking the Japanese market seriously?

Kodak: The Changing Strategies By 2000, Kodak, the company that pioneered the imaging industry by inventing easy-to-use


(b) From the evidence given in the case do you think Kodak’s charges of unfair trading practices against Fuji are valid? Support your answer.   

On December 5, 1997 the US lost its first major trade dispute in the newly formed World Trade Organization(WTO). The high-profile case pitted photographic paper and film giants Kodak and Fuji against one another along with their respective governments, the US and Japan. Kodak claimed that Japan’s photographic market & distribution




1 Which company is truly Multinational ? Why?                                       


A Truly Multinational Company:-The Axel Johnson Institute, the predecessor to Nordic Water, was founded as early as in the beginning of the sixties in Nynäshamn. It was an exceptional institute, as it was privately owned. From the beginning the business concept was clean water. Here they should develop, design, manufacture and deliver machines and equipment for water and wastewater treatment.


 2:  List three differences between Company, Multi National company and Trans Multi National Company?

Answer:-Difference between a global, transnational, international and multinational company18062007

We tend to read the following terms and think they refer to any company doing business in another country.

  • Multinational
  • International
  • Transnational
  • Global

Andrew Hines over at BNET has brief and clear definitions of each of these terms, Get your international business terms right.Each term is distinct and has a specific meaning which define the scope and degree of interaction with their operations outside of their “home” country.

  • International companies are importers and exporters, they have no investment outside of their home country.
  • Multinational companies have



CASE – 3

(a)Explain why MNCs have located R & D centres in developing countries? 

Answer:-Theories of the globalisation of innovation assume that multinational corporations (MNCs) distribute their innovation activities hierarchically, with advanced technology being confined to the advanced industrialised countries, while more routine low-end innovation is decentralised in a few developing countries. The emergence of about 40 research and development (R&D) centres in Beijing, China, many of which engage in basic and advanced applied research, challenges the above assumption. This article argues that the cheap and abundant highly skilled labour of the latecomer countries is an essential factor in attracting global R&D activities but that this factor is far from being a sufficient condition for the presence there of advanced R



(b)Mention the areas where R & D activities can easily be decentralised.

  1. Decentralized R&D in the contemporary MNE

Answer:-  The  authors  distinguish  two  different  environments  in which R&D  labs  are performing.   The  first  context  is  characterized  by  the  fact  that  R&D  activities  work  along with other functions within the subsidiary in order to develop a particular  product which would be brought on to the market by the subsidiary. In order to  better  address  local needs,  the R&D  laboratory uses  company-level  knowledge  and develops its own manufactured goods.The  second  context  reflects  a  more  contemporary  view,  implying  that  laboratories shape the




VK Ltd a multi-product Company, furnishes you the following data relating to the year 2000.

First Half of the year      Second Half of the year

Sales                     Rs. 45,000                            Rs. 50,000

Total Cost            Rs. 40,000                            Rs. 43,000

Assuming that there is no change in prices and variable costs and that the fixed expenses are incurred equally in the two half years periods calculate for the year 2000.

  1. The Profit Volume ration
  2. Fixed Expenses
  3. Break-Even Sales
  4. Percentage of margin of safety.

5 marks each

Answer :  VARIABEL  COST   27000      30000      57000



FIXED  COST   13000      13000      26000


40000      43000      83000




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COURSE :  MBA 4th semester                                   Total Marks : 80



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A policy is a plan of action. It is a statement of intention committing the management to a general course of action. When the management drafts a policy statement to cover some features of its personnel programmes, the statement may often contain an expression of philosophy and principle as well. Although it is perfectly legitimate for an organization to include its philosophy, principles and policy in one policy expression.


Q1) Why organizations adopt personnel policies explain the benefits?


Answer : Recruitment and Selection

Policies pertaining to the recruitment and selection process are the foundation of building any workforce. You must have a plan for creating


Q2) What are the sources and content of personnel policies?




  • Personnel policies constitute guide to action. They furnish the general standards or basis on which decisions are reached.
  • A policy is man-made rule or predetermined




Q3) Explain few personnel policies?




  1. Employment Policy———-to obtain suitable qualified and experienced personnel and to enable them to derive satisfaction from employment by offering them attractive wages, good working conditions, security and opportunities for promotions.
  2. Training policy——-to provide



Q4) Explain principles of personnel policies?


Answer : Principles of personnel policy



Management for us means assuming responsibility for our stakeholders and delegating at the right level. We achieve both predefined and





Recruitment is understood as the process of searching for and obtaining applicants for jobs, from among whom the rights people can be selected. Theoretically, recruitment process is said to end with the receipt of applications, in practice the activity extends to the screening of applications so as to eliminate those who are not qualified for the job.


Recruitment refers to the process of receipt of applications from job seekers. In reality, the term is used to describe the entire process of employee hiring. These are recruitment boards for railways, banks and other organization.



Q1) Explain in detail the general purpose of recruitment?


Answer : Recruitment provides a desirable number of candidates for an organization’s open positions. Recruitment also manages the costs in time and money for hiring employees. Recruitment enables the organization to meet social and legal obligations. By sourcing, developing and recruiting candidates, recruitment facilitates the



Q2) Explain factors governing Recruitment?


Answer : Factors Governing Recruitment:


Given its key role and external visibility, recruitment is naturally subject to influence of several factors. These include external and internal forces.


External Forces:

Of particular importance is the supply and demand of specific skills in the labour market. If the demand for a particular skill is high relative to the supply




Q3) Explain the Recruitment process with diagram?










Q4) Explain Recruitment planning?


Answer : Recruitment is the process used by an organization to locate and attract job applicants in order to fill a position. An effective approach to recruitment can help a company successfully compete for limited human resources. To maximize competitive advantage, a company must choose the recruiting method that produces the best






Nain AGM materials, is fuming and fretting. He bumped into Karan, GM Materials, threw the resignation letter on his table, shouted and walked out of the room swiftly.


Nain has reason for his sudden outburst. He has been driven to the wall. Perhaps details of the story will tell the reasons for Nain’s bile and why he put in his papers, barely four months after he took up his assignment.


The year was 2005 when Nain quit the prestigious Sail plant at Mumbai. As a manager material Nain enjoyed the power. He could even place an order for materials worth Rs 25 laky. He needed nobody’s prior approval.


Nain joined a pulp making plant located at Pane as AGM Materials. The plant is owned by a prestigious business house in India. Obviously perks, designation and reputation of the conglomerate lured Nain away from the public sector.


When he joined the pulp making company, little did Nain realize that he needed prior approval to place an order for materials worth Rs 12 laths. He had presumed that he had the authority to place an order by himself worth half the amount of what he used to do at the mega steel maker. He placed the order material arrived, were received, accepted and used up in the plant.


Trouble started when the bill for Rs 12 laky came from vendor. The accounts department withheld payment for the reason that the bill was not endorsed by Karan. Karan roused to sign the bill as his approval was not taken by Nain before placing the order.


Nain felt fumigated and cheated. A brief encounter with Karan only aggravated the problem. Nain was curtly told that he should have known company rules before venturing. Nain decided to quit the company.



Q1) Does the company have an orientation programme?


It doesn’t  look like  the




Q2) If yes how effective is it?


It  is  not  as




Q3) How is formal Orientation programme conducted?


Answer : The orientation process has three stages:


1   A general orientation

2   A departmental orientation, and

3   A specific job orientation

They are conducted by different parties.


The General Orientation is usually managed by either the Training Department or the Human Resources Department, with the Departmental Orientation by the Department Head or first Assistant, while the specific Job Orientation can be carried out by an experienced and trained employee (trained on how to




Q4) If you were Nain what would have you done?








Bitter it may taste, shrill it may sound, and sleepless nights it may cause, but it is true. In a major shakeup Airbus. The European aircraft manufacturers has thrown a big shock to its employees. Before coming to the details of the shock, a peep into the company’s resume.


Name Airbus

Created 1970

President CEO : Vijay M.

Employees 57000

Turnover 26 Ban (Euro)

Total Aircraft sold (Feb 2007) 7187

Delivered 4598

Headquarters Paris (France)

Facilities 16

Rival Boeing


Airbus announced on February 27, 2007 that it would shed 10,000 jobs across four European countries and sell six of its unit. N the same day the helpless workers did what was expected of them – downed tools and staged protests. The protesting workers at Airbus’s factory at Maule, northern France, were seen picketing outside the factory gate after holding up production a day earlier. To be fair to Airbus, its management entered talks with unions before the job loss and sale was formally announced. But the talks did not mollify the agitated workers.


Job sheeting and hiring of units are a part of Power and restructuring plan unleashed by Airbus to save itself from increasing loss of its ground to the arch rival, Boeing Co.


Airbus Power & Strategy was first mooted in October 2006 but sparkled a split between France & Germany over the distribution of job losses and the placement of future ones. Later the two countries agreed to share both job losses and new technology.


The power and plan, if finalized, would mean a 3 per cent reduction to Airbus’s 55000 employee strength.



Q1) Why should Power and focus on shedding jobs to save on cost?


Answer : It is a  mean  to


Q2) Are there no alternative strategies?

Answer : THRER  ARE






Q3) Will the proposed shedding of jobs and scale of six units help airbus survive the intense competition from Boeing?

Answer : YES, THIS  IS



Q4) Comment on the whole issue?




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Corporate Law



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SUBJECT : Corporate Law



COURSE :  GDM 2nd  Sem                                                                                                                                 Total Marks : 80


Q.1  In the following statements only one is correct statement.  Explain Briefly?

i)An invitation to negotiate is a good offer.

ii)A quasi-contract is not a contract at all.

iii)An agreement to agree is a valid contract.

Answer:  A quasi-contract is not a contract at all

A quasi-contract (or implied-in-law contract) is a fictional contract created by courts for equitable, not contractual purposes. A quasi-contract is not an actual contract, but is a legal substitute for a contract formed to impose equity between two parties. The concept of a quasi-contract is that of a contract that should have been formed, even though in actuality it was not. It is used when a court finds it appropriate to create an obligation upon a non-contracting party to avoid injustice and to ensure fairness. It is invoked in circumstances of unjust enrichment, and is connected with the concept of restitution.


Q.2.A ship-owner agreed to carry to cargo of sugar belonging to A from Constanta to Busrah.  He knew that there was a sugar market in Busrah and that A was a sugar  merchant, but did not know that he intended to sell the cargo, immediately on its arrival.  Owning to Shipment’s default, the voyage was delayed and sugar fetched a  lower price than it would have done had it arrived on time.  A claimed compensation for the full loss suffered by him because of the delay.  Give your decision.  Explain  Briefly?

Answer:  A can claim ordinary damages. Loss of profits is a special less and can be claimed only if the other party was aware of the possibility of such a loss (Sec. 73).

In the absence of any explicit communication, we have to infer what could have been in the contemplation of the parties from their actions. The court reasoned that the carriers had no way of knowing that a would loose


Q.3.The proprietors of a medical preparation called the “Carbolic Smoke Ball” published in several newspapers the following advertisement:-“£ 1000 reward will be paid by the Carbolic Smoke Ball Co. to any person who contracts the increasing epidemic influenza after having used the Smoke Ball three times daily for two weeks according to printed directions supplied with each ball. £ 1000 is deposited with the Alliance Bank showing our sincerity in the matter. On the faith in this advertisement, the plaintiff bought a Smoke Ball and used it as directed. She was attacked by influenza.  She sued the company for the reward.  Will she succeed?   Explain Briefly

Answer:  She (Mrs. Carlill) was held entitled to the announced reward of £1000. A general offer may be accepted by any person doing the stipulated act (Carlill vs Carbolic Smoke Ball Co.).

She will not succeed. The facts show that there was no binding contract between the parties. The case is not like, Williams v carwardine H.B Ad 621 where the money was to become payable on the performance of certain acts by the plantiff, here the plantiff could



Q.4. Fazal consigned four cases of Chinese crackers at Kanpur to be carried to Allahabad on the 30th May,1987. He intended to sell them at the Shabarat festival of 5th June 1987. The railway discovered that the consignment could not be sent by passenger train and asked Fazal either to remove them or authorize their dispatch by goods train. He took no action and the goods arrived at Allahabad a month after they were booked. Fazal filed a suit against Railways for damages due to late delivery of the goods which deprived him of the special profits at the festival sale. Decide & explain briefly ?(5 Marks)

Answer:  Fazal shall not be entitled to


Q.5. ‘Lifeoy’ Soap company advertised that it would give a reward of Rs. 2000 who contracted skindisease after using the ‘Lifeoy’ soap of the company for a certain period according to the printeddirections. Mrs. Jacob purchased the advertised ‘Lifeboy’ and contracted skin disease inspite ofusing this soap according to the printed instructions. She claimed reward of Rs. 2000. The claim isresisted by the company on the ground that offer was not made to her and that in any case she hadnot communicated her acceptance of the offer. Decide whether Mrs. Jacob can claim the reward ornot. Give reasons. Explain briefly?

Answer:  Mrs. Jacob can claim, the reward. General offer may be accepted by any body [Carlill vs Carbolic Smoke Ball Co.].


Q.6. In each set of statements, only one is correct.  State the correct statements &  Explain briefly?

  1. A) I)A bailed has a general lien on the goods bailed.

Answer : A bailed has a


ii)The ownership of goods pawned passes to the Pawnee.

Answer : The ownership of good pawns passes to is incorrect statement. For  ownership to pass, goods must be specific ownership in goods cannot pass till the goods are curtained.



iii)A gratuitous bailment can be terminated by the bailer even  before the stated time.

 Answer : A gratuitous bailment can be


  1. b) i) A substituted agent is as good an agent of the agent as a subagent.
  2. ii) An ostensible agency is as effective as an express agency.

iii) A principal can always revoke an agent’s authority. (5 Marks)


B)I)A substituted agent is as good an agent of the agent as a sub-agent.

Answer : A substituted agent is as good an agent of the agent as a sub agent is  incorrect statement. The general rule is that an agent can’t delegable his authority and appoint another agent. An agent being delegates cannot transfer in


  1. ii) An ostensible agency is as effective as an express agency.

Answer : An ostensible agency is an effective as an ostensible authority exist where the principles words or conduct would lead a reasonable person in a 3rd party’s position to believe that the agent was authorized to act, even if the


iii)A principal can always revoke an agent’s authority.

Answer : A principal can always revoke an agents authority is incorrect statement. However, principal cannot revoke agency coupled with


Q.7. A, an unpaid seller, sends goods to B by railway. B becomes insolventAnd A sends a telegram to Railway authorities not to deliver the goods to B. B. goes to the Parceloffice of Railway Yard and by presenting R. R. (Railway Receipt) takes delivery of the goods andstarts putting them in the cart. Meanwhile the Station Master comes running with the telegram inhand and takes possession of the goods from B. Discuss the rights of A and B to the goods in possession of Railway authorities. (5 Marks)

Answer:  ABC has purchased goods on behalf of the principal either with his own funds, or by incurring a personal liability for the price, he


Q .8.  X needs Rs. 10,000 but cannot raise this amount because his credit is not good enough.  Y whose credit is good accommodates.  X by giving him a promote made out in favor of X, though Y owes no money to X.  X endorses   the promoter to Z for value received.  Z who is holder in due course the promoter to Z for value received.  Z who is holder in due course demands payment from Y.  Can refuse and plead the arrangement between him and X Explain briefly?

Answer:  According to sec 120 of the negotiable instrument act, e stoppets against denying original validity of instrument, No maker of a


Q.9. Will C has the right of further negotiation in the following cases: (B signs the endorsements) Explain briefly? (5 Marks)

  1. i) ‘Pay C for my use’
  2. ii) ‘Pay C’)
  3. iv) ‘Pay C or order for the account of B’

Answer:  The endorsement of a negotiable instrument followed by delivery transfers to the endorsee the property therein with the right of

Q.10.     A promissory note was made without mentioning any time for payment.  The   holder added the words’ on demand on the face of the instrument.  State whether it amounted to material alteration and explain the effect of such   alteration.  Explain briefly?

Answer:  This is not note material


 Q.11.    State whether the following instruments are valid promissory notes:

I)I promise to pay Rs. 5000 to B on the dearth of ‘B’s uncle provided that D in his will gives me a legacy sufficient for the promise of payment of the said sum. 

ii)I hereby acknowledge that I owe X Rs. 5,000 on account of rent due and I agree that the said sum will be paid be me in regular installments.  I acknowledge myself indebted to B in Rs. 5000 to be paid on demand for value received.

Answer: i)It is not a promissory note because it does not contain an unconditional promise; the amount being payable only if uncle gives


Q.12.     A Payee holder of a bill of exchange.  He endorses it in blank and delivers it  to B.  B endorses in full to C or order.  C without endorsement transfers the   bill to D.  State giving reasons whether D as bearer of the bill of exchange is entitled to recover the payment from A or B or C.  Explain briefly?

Answer : D is the bearer and the holder of the bill in case of dishonor of the bill, D is entitled to receive payment or recover the money by suit from the


Q.13.          Write a short note on the Doctrine of Indoor Management? Explain briefly?                

Answer : Memorandum of association and articles of association are two most  important document needed for the incorporation of a company. The memorandum of a company is the constitution of that company. It sets out  the  (A) Object  (B)  Name Clause  (C)  Registered office clauses (D)  Liability Clauses  (E)  Capital Clauses whereas the articles of association enumerate   the internal rules of the company under which it will be governed Undoubtly , both memorandum of association and the articles association    are public documents in


Q.14. The shareholders at an annual general meeting passed a resolution for the payment of dividend at a rate higher than that recommended by the Board of Directors.  Examine the validity of the resolution. Explain briefly?                      

Answer: Dividend :  According to regulation 85 of Table A of the companies Act 1956, a company in general meeting may declare dividend recommended by the board of the director of the company. The share holders at an annual general meeting may reduce the amount of dividend , recommended by the board of direction of the of the company


Q.15. In a prospectus issued by a company the Managing Director stated that the company had paiddividend every year during 1921 – 27, which was a fact. However, the company had sustained lossesduring the relevant period and had paid dividends out of secret reserves accumulated in the past.Examine the consequences of the observation made by the Managing Director. Explain briefly?(5 Marks)

Answer : Prospectus is a formal legal document, which is required by and filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, that provides details about an investment offering for sale to the public. A prospectus should contain the facts that an investor


Q.16. A buys from B 400 shares in a company on the faith of a share certificate issued by the company. Atender to the company a transfer deed duly executed together with B’s share certificate. Thecompany discovers that the certificate in the name of B has been fraudulently obtained and refuses toregister the transfer. Advise A. Explain briefly? (5 Marks)

Answer : A deed in lieu of foreclosure (lieu deed) is a conveyance, by the owner of property encumbered by a mortgage, to the mortgagee, in full satisfaction of the obligation secured by the mortgage.The mortgagee takes title to the property subject to existing claims or liens affecting the property, but the mortgage is not merged with the lender’s title to the property. Id. Acceptance of a lieu deed terminates the liability of the borrower and all other persons liable for the mortgage debt unless there is an agreement to the contrary made contemporaneously with the lieu deed transaction. Id. The terms and conditions under which a borrower will grant and a lender will accept a deed in lieu of foreclosure are highly negotiable and will depend on the rela




Q.17. A insured his house against fire. Later while insure, A killed his wife, severely injured his only son,set fire to the house and died in the fire. The son survived and sued the insurer for the fire loss,advice the insurer. Explain briefly? (5 Marks)

Answer : Because the fire was set deliberately they would not cover the cost. It was not  accidental and as the son did not insure himself, if the insurance company will not  pay out and I believe they would not because it was not a tenant, therefore, they


Q.18. a) Satrang Singh admitted his only infant son in a private nursing home. As a result of strong dose ofmedicine administered by the nursing attendant, the child has become mentally retarded. SatrangSingh wants to make a complaint to the District Forum under the Consumer Protection Act, 1986seeking relief by way of compensation on the ground that there was deficiency in service by thenursing home. Does his complaint give rise to a consumer dispute? Who is the consumer in theinstant case? Explain briefly?

Answer:The Consumer Protection Act, 1986 (in short, ‘the Act’), is a benevolent social legislation that lays down the rights of the consumers and provides their for promotion and protection of the rights of the consumers. The first and the only Act


  1. b) Smart booked a motor vehicle through one of the dealers. He was informed subsequently that theprocedure for purchasing the motor vehicle had changed and was called upon to make furtherpayment to continue the booking before delivery. On being aggrieved, Smart filed a complaint withthe State Commission under the Consumer Protection Act, 1986. Will he succeed? Explain briefly?

Answer:In terms of the provisions contained in the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, complaints:-

  • Where the value of goods or services and compensation, if any, claimed below Rs. Twenty Lacs or upto Rs. Twenty Lacs, can be filed before District Forum.



  1. c) Brittle and Company, a small-scale industry, sought nursing and financing facilities from its bankersby means of grant of further advances and adequate margin money in anticipation of good demandfor its products. In failing to obtain this and having become sick, it proceeds against its bankersunder the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, Will it succeed? Explain briefly?(5 Marks)

Answer: The Disputes Redressal Agencies (District Forums, State Commissions and National Commission) under the Consumer Protection Act,1986 adjudicate upon the complaints of consumers relating to defaults in products and

Q.19 Avinash booked his goods with Superfast Freight Carriers at Delhi for being carried to Firozabad.  The goods receipt note mentioned that all the disputes would be subject to jurisdiction of the Mumbai Court.  Vanish lodged a complaint for certain deficiency in service against the transporter in the District Forum at Delhi.  Superfast Carriers contested that District Forum at Delhi had no jurisdiction to entertain the complaint as the head office of the transporter was at Mumbai and the jurisdiction has been clearly stated in the goods receipt not.  Is  the content  nation of the transporter tenable? Explain briefly?

Answer: The contention of the transporter is not tenable. This is based on the facts in the  pares vs. Rosh an freight carrier case, where in the national commission has ruled that the parties could not confer jurisdiction on a Court which had no jurisdiction.  The agreement signed between the parties conferring exclusion jurisdiction on a particular court was of no


Q.20. X who was working as a truck driver had taken a general insurance policy to cover the risk ofinjuries for a period from 1.11.1998 to 30.11.1999. He renewed the policy for a further period of oneyear on 10.11.1999. On the same day, he met with an accident and suffered multiple injuriesincluding fractures. X submitted the claim along with documents to the insurance company. Theinsurance company repudiated the claim on the ground that the premium for the renewed policy wasreceived in the office only at 2.30 p.m. on 10.11.1999, while the accident had taken place at 10.00a.m. on that day and hence there was no policy at the time of accident. Will X succeed if he files acomplaint against the insurance company for this claim? Explain briefly?(5 Marks)

Answer  :  The Department of Insurance makes sure all insurance companies, HMOs, producers selling insurance in Illinois and other regulated entities obey state insurance laws. The Department provides consumer information and investigates complaints


Q.21 Avinash booked his goods with Superfast Freight Carriers at Delhi for being carried to Firozabad.  The goods receipt note mentioned that all the disputes would be subject to jurisdiction of the Mumbai Court.  Vanish lodged a complaint for certain deficiency in service against the transporter in the District Forum at Delhi.  Superfast Carriers contested that District Forum at Delhi had no jurisdiction to entertain the complaint as the head office of the transporter was at Mumbai and the jurisdiction has been clearly stated in the goods receipt not.  Is  the content  nation of the transporter tenable? Explain briefly?               

Answer  : The contention of the transporter is not tenable. This is based on the facts in the  pares vs. Rosh an freight carrier case, where in the national commission has ruled that the parties could not confer jurisdiction on a Court which


Q.22.         With reference to the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, decide the       following giving reasons in support of your answer.

I)Such Duke Ltd. dispatched certain consignments of goods by road through Fastrack Roadways Ltd. The goods were unloaded and stored in a go down enrooted on the suggestion of consignee.  A fire broke out in the neighboring go down spread to the go down and goods were destroyed.  The Fastrack Roadways Ltd. claimed that there was neither negligence nor deficiency in service on their part and goods were being carried at “Owner risk” and since no special premium was paid, they were not responsible for the loss caused by fire.  Whether Fastrack Roadways Ltd. is liable to pay damages to consignor?

Answer  :  The present problem is based on nath bros exis international ltd. V best roadways ltd 2000 (2) scale 5ft, where the national commission dismissed the claim. The supreme court allowed the appeal and held that the liability of the carrier is that of an insurer and is absolute in terms in the sense that the carrier has to deliver the good, at

ii)Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) formulated a scheme called ‘salary saving scheme’ under which employees of an organisation could buy an insurance policy.  Premium due on each policy was collected by the employer from the salary of the employees nor did it issue any premium notice.  When the widow of the deceased employee made a claim to LIC on the death of her husband, the LIC repudiated the claim on the ground that four installments of premium had not been paid.  The widow was approached the consumer forum for redressed. Is the LIC liable for deficiency in service? Explain?

Answer  :  LIC is liable for deficiency in services. In the instant case the employer had implied authority to called premium on behalf of the corporation.


iii). Raman booked a ticket from Delhi to New York by Lufthansa Airlines.  The  airport  authorities in New Delhi did not find any fault in his visa and other documents.  However, at Frankfurt airport authorities instituted proceedings of verification because of which Raman missed his flight to New York.  After necessary verification, Raman was able to reach New York by the next flight.  The airline authorities’ tendered apology to Raman for the inconvenience caused to him and also paid as goodwill gesture a sum of Rs. 5,000.  Raman intends to  institute proceedings under the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 against Lufthansa Airlines for deficiency in service.  Will he succeed?               

Answer  : The present problem is similar to ravneet singh bagged and KLM royal dutch Airlines 1999 (7) scale 47. In the present problem lefthansa airlines could not be held to be quality of clerifency in service. Although roman had been subjected to



Q.23.With reference to the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, decide t                                         he following giving reasons in support of your answer.

I)Sohan sent all relevant documents in an envelope regarding consignment of goods to a buyer in the USA through Fast Service Couriers.  The documents did not reach the buyer as a consequence of which the buyer could not take delivery of the goods.  By the time the duplicate copies of the document had been received by the buyer, the season of the goods was over.  He claimed that he had suffered a loss of US $ 5,000 as a result of the negligence of the courier.  The State Commission ordered the payment to be made by the Fast Service Couriers, but the National Commission in appeal reversed the order and ordered payment of US $ 100 only as per the receipt issued by the Fast Service Courier to the consignor at the time of the dispatch of the latter.  Advise Shan.

Answer  : Sohan will not succeed. The liability of Fast Service Couriers will be limited to the payment of $100 as per the receipt issued by the courier service to the consignor. The problem is based on Supreme Court decision in Bharathi Knitting Co. vs

ii)Mahesh purchased a machine from Astute Ltd. to operate it himself for earning his liver hood.  He took the assistance of a person to assist him in operating the machine.  The machine developed fault during the warranty period. He filed a claim in the consumer forum against the company for deficiency in service.  Astute Ltd. alleged that Mahesh did not operate the machine himself but had appointed a person exclusively to operate the machine.  Will Mahesh succeed?

Answer  :Mahesh will succeed. The Supreme Court, in Laxmi Engineering Works vs P.S.G. Industrial Institute, held that if a person purchased a


iii)Pilli purchased a car by taking a loan from Kerala cooperative Bank Ltd. and gave post-dated cheques to the bank not only in respect of repayment of loan installments but also of premium of insurance policy for two succeeding years. On the expiry of the policy.  Pilli’s car met with an accident.  Will Pilli succeed in getting a claim against the Bank?                                                          

Answer:  Pillai will not succeed. The obligation to renew the policy is on the owner of the car alone. Merely forwarding cheques to the


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Programme: Doctoral Programme in Management

  1. B.: 1) Answer any Sixteen
  2. What is a linear programming problem? Discuss the scope and role of linear programming in solving management problems. Discuss and describe the role of linear programming in managerial decision-making bringing out limitations, if any.

Ans: - Linear programming (LP) is a mathematical method for determining a way to achieve the best outcome (such as maximum profit or lowest cost) in a given mathematical model for some list of requirements represented as linear relationships. More formally, linear programming is a technique for the optimization of a linear objective function, subject to linear equality linear equality and linear inequality constraints. Given a polytypic and


  1. Linear programming is one of the most frequently and successfully employed Operations Research techniques to managerial and business decisions. Elucidate this statement with some examples.

Ans: A Linear (LP) is a problem that can be expressed as follows (the so-called Standard Form):

minimize cx

subject to Ax = b

x >= 0

where x is the vector of variables to be



  1. What is an assignment problem? It is true to say that it is a special case of the transportation problem? Explain. How can you formulate an assignment problem as a standard linear programming problem? Illustrate. What do you understand by an assignment problem? Give a brief outline for solving it.

Ans: An Assignment Problem, is — in which the number of sources (assignees) equals the number of designations (assignments) and each supply and each demand equals 1.

Assignment Problem

A special case of the transportation problem is the assignment problem which occurs when each supply is 1 and each demand is 1. In this case, the integrality implies that every supplier will be assigned one destination and every destination will have one supplier. The costs give the charge for assigning a supplier and destination to each other.



  1. What are different types of inventories? Explain. What functions does inventory perform? State the two basic inventory decisions management must make as they attempt to accomplish the functions of inventory just described by you.



  • Raw materials: The purchased items or extracted materials that are transformed into components or products.
  • Components: Parts or subassemblies used in building the final product.
  • Work-in-process (WIP): Any item that is in some stage of completion in the manufacturing process.
  • Finished goods: Completed products that will be delivered to customers.
  • Distribution inventory: Finished goods and spare parts that are at various points in the distribution system.
  • Maintenance, repair, and operational (MRO) inventory (often called supplies): Items that are used in manufacturing but do not become part of the finished product.


Some inventory items can be



  1. What is queuing theory? What type of questions are sought to be answered in analyzing a queuing system? Give a general structure of the queuing system and explain. Illustrate some queuing situations. What is queuing theory? In what types of problem situations can it be applied successfully? Discuss giving examples.


  • It is a collection of mathematical models of various queuing systems.
  • It is used extensively to analyze production and service processes exhibiting random variability in market demand (arrival times) and


  1. What is a replacement problem? Describe some important replacement situations and policies. Briefly explain the costs which are relevant to decisions for replacement of depreciable assets. Illustrate their behavior and explain how the optimal time for replacement of an asset can be determined.

ANS: In any system , the efficiency of an item deteriorates With time. In such cases, either the old item should be replaced by a new item, or some kind of restorative action [ maintenance] is necessary to restore the efficiency of the whole system. The cost of maintenance depends upon a number of factors, and a stage comes at which the maintenance cost is so large ,it is more profitable to replace the old item.



  1. What kinds of decision-making situations may be analysed using PERT and CPM techniques? State the major similarities between PERT and CPM. Under what circumstances is CPM a better technique of project management than PERT? A construction company has received a contract to build an office complex. It has frequently engaged itself in constructing such buildings. Which of the two network techniques, PERT and CPM, should in your opinion, be employed by the company? Why?

ANS : PERT and CPM, acronyms for “program evaluation and review technique” and “critical path method”, respectively, are network techniques used to aid in the planning, scheduling, monitoring, and control of activities which are related to each other. For example, CPM is frequently used in the construction industry to help organize and schedule those activities which together constitute a given construction project. PERT was first used to help coordinate the activities in the development of the Polaris missle system. PERT and CPM differ from each


  1. Describe the steps involved in the process of decision making. What are payoff and regret functions? How can entries in a regret table be derived from a pay-off table?

Ans: – Step 1: Define the “problem”

It is impossible to make a rational decision unless you can clearly define the problem or context in which the decision needs to be made. Why does a decision need to be made? What will be the outcome if no decision is made? What outcome is desired? What is preventing that outcome from being realized?

Step 2: Identify available alternative solutions to the problem

The key to this step is not to limit yourself to obvious alternatives or to what has worked in the past. Better decisions come from being open to multiple alternatives. It is often helpful to consult trusted adults or experts in the area in which the decision needs to be made.


  1. What do you understand by Markov processes? In what areas of management can they be applied successfully? What do you understand by transition probabilities? Is the assumption of stationary transition probabilities realistic, in your opinion? Why or why not?

Ans:- A Markov analysis looks at a sequence of events, and analyzes the tendency of one event to be followed by another. Using this analysis, you can generate a new sequence of random but related events, which will look similar to the original. A Markov process is useful for analyzing dependent random events – that is, events whose likelihood


  1. Explain how the probability tree helps to understand the problem of Markov processes. Explain the method of calculation of ending up in each absorbing state when a chain beings in a particular transient state. What is fundamental matrix of Markov chains? What does it calculate?

Ans: – A PROBABILITY TREE is a special type of graph used to determine the outcomes of an experiment. It consists of “branches” that are labeled with either frequencies or probabilities. Tree diagrams can make some probability problems easier to visualize and solve. The following example illustrates how to use a tree diagram.

Trees are excellent tools for helping you to choose between several courses of action. They provide a highly effective structure within which you can lay out options and investigate the possible outcomes of choosing those options. They also help you to form a balanced picture of the risks and rewards associated with each possible


  1. What is simulation? Describe the simulation process. State the major two reasons for using simulation to solve a problem. What are the advantages and limitations of simulation? “When it becomes difficult to use an optimization technique for solving a problem, one has to resort to simulation’’. Discuss. “Simulation is typically the process of carrying out sampling experiments on the models of the system rather than the system itself.’’ Elucidate this statement by taking some examples.

Ans:- Simulation is the imitation of some real thing, state of affairs, or process. The act of simulating something generally entails representing certain key characteristics or behaviors of a selected physical or abstract system. The process of imitating a real phenomenon with a set of mathematical formulas. Advanced computer programs can simulate


  1. A company has three offers for its existing equipment in one of the divisions. The first buyer is willing to pay Rs. 50,000 at the end of 8 years’ period. The second buyer offers Rs. 39,000—consisting of an immediate payment of Rs. 14,000 and Rs. 25,000 after 6 years. The third buyer agrees to buy the equipment for Rs. 29,000 payable right away. Which is the best offer for the company if it can earn an interest @ 8% per annum on the money received?

Ans: – A company has three offers.



AT THE END OF 8 YEARS ——RS 50,000.


  1. What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative techniques of forecasting. When is a qualitative model appropriate? Briefly discuss the Delphi method of making forecasts.

Ans:- Forecasting can be broadly considered as a method or a technique for estimating many future aspects of a business or other operation. There are numerous techniques that can be used to accomplish the goal of forecasting. For example, a retailing firm that has been in business for

25 years can forecast its volume of sales in the coming year based on its experience over the

25-year period—such a forecasting technique bases


  1. A) How do you distinguish between resource leveling and resource allocation problems? State and explain an algorithm for resource allocation.

Ans: – Resource allocation addresses the problem of the optimum use and timing of the assignment of these resources to the various project activities.

Resource aggregation involves determining the aggregate resources that will be needed, period by period, to complete all project activities.

Having identified the necessary resource requirements, the last stage in the process is resource leveling. In this stage, we attempt to ensure that the demand for resources does not exceed availability. Specifically, demand for resources is smoothed to ensure that the peaks and valleys are reduced. In this lesson, we will also learn about the “critical


  1. What is a `game’ in game theory? What are the properties of a game? Explain the “best strategy’’ on the basis of mini max criterion of optimality. Describe the maxim in and mini max principles of game theory.

Ans: – ‘Game Theory’

A model of optimality taking into consideration not only benefits less costs, but also the interaction between participants. Game theory attempts to look at the relationships between participants in a particular model and predict their optimal decisions.

One frequently cited example of game theory


  1. Explain the steps involved in solution to dynamic programming problems. Explain the following in the context of dynamic programming:

(a) Stages

(b) States

(c) Pay-off function

(d) Recursive relationship

Ans: – Dynamic programming is an optimization approach that transforms a complex problem into a sequence of simpler problems; it’s essential characteristic is the multistage nature of the optimization procedure.



  1. A political campaign for election to the parliament is entering its final stage and pre-poll surveys are medicating a very close contest in a certain constituency. One of the candidates in the constituency has sufficient funds to give five full-page advertisements in four different areas. Based on the polling information, an estimate has been made of the approximate number (in thousands) of additional votes that can be polled in different areas. This is shown below.

Ans:- No. of Area

Commercial Ads A B C D



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Business Management


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Subject: Business Management

Name of the Programme: Doctoral Programme in Management


Case 1: Remains of Dream

  1. Identify and analyse the environmental factors in this case.

Ans 1:

  • Political-: Priority changes with the change in the ruling party.
  • Legal-: Strict law


  1. Who were all responsible for this tragic end?

Ans 2:


  1. It is right on the part of the government and promotional agencies to woo entrepreneurs by promising facilities and incentives which they are not sure of being able to provide?

Ans 3:

  • Diluting political image of the nation.
  • Spoiling name of the ruling government.


  1. Should there be legislation to compensate entrepreneurs for the loss suffered due to the irresponsibility of public agencies? What problems are likely to beloved and created by such legislation?

Ans 4:

  • Problems likely to be solved
  • Increase confidence of entrepreneurs.
  • Safety for entrepreneurs.
  • Increase awareness and carefulness on part of the government about their


  1. What are the lessons of this case for an entrepreneur and government and promotional agencies?

Ans 5: Lessons for-: Entrepreneur

  • Proper environmental analysis is necessary for success.
  • Always refer for past records before any work.
  • Help of KPO’s is good means for information.
  • Familiarize him with

Case 2: Costs of Delay:

  1. Discuss internal, domestic and global environments of business revealed by this case.

Ans 1:

Internal/domestic environments

  1. a) The business decision making process in Indian govt. sector is pretty slow which leads to unnecessary loss of time and money. In this case, the slow process lead to loss of opportunity to buy a firm (premier Oil)


  1. Discuss whether it is the domestic or global environment that hinders the globalization of Indian business.

Ans: - It’s the domestic environment which hinders the globalization of Indian business. The policies were not in place at the time the markets were opened to foreign players. It’s a misconception that in India policies cannot work. India should learn from countries like Korea which initially strengthened its internal industries before opening


  1. Even if Elf had not acquired Premier Oil, what would have been the impact of the delay in the clearance on IOC?

Ans: - Since the oil prices


  1. What would have been the significance of the foreign acquisition to IOC?


  1. a) Supply of oil to India: – this would have eased off much pressure off the Bombay high refinery which is currently producing 80% of domestic crude oil.
  2. b) Forex reserved: IOCL would have earned foreign exchange reserves for india by selling the product in the world market.


  1. What are the lessons of this case?

Ans: - Strike while the iron is hot. The decision making process should be fast or you will lose the opportunity to the competitors.





Case 3- The Natural Thrust:



  1. Explain the environmental factors which Balsara used to its advantage.

Ans 1:

BALSARA USED ITS ADVANTAGE IN INDIA with clove oil (which has been traditionally regarded in India as an effective deterrent to tooth decay


  1. What is the strength of AAII to market ayurvedic toothpaste in USA?

Ans 2: Following are the strength of AAII to ayurvedic toothpaste market in USA. The company used the natural and herbal integrants in their toothpaste.




Case No. 6

Different for Gamble


  1. Discuss the reasons for the initial failure of P & G in Japan.

Ans 1: P & G entered Japanese market in year 1973.P & G entered Japanese market with American products, American strategy, American managers and American sales method. This was the major reason of their failure in Japanese market. The main reason that they we rent successful in the initial stage was that the company didn’t


  1. Where did P & G go wrong (if it did) in the evaluation of the Indian market and its strategy?

Ans 2: P&G entered the Indian detergent market in the early nineties with the Ariel brand through P&G India. P&G also introduced products like shampoo, medical products and personal products of men and women. The Indian detergent market was


  1. Discuss the reasons for the difference in the performance of P & G in India and China.

Ans 3: The difference was because, china’s business worth several times than in India in less than 12 years, has emerged as highly promising market for P&G. When the Chinese market opened P&G was the first MNCS to enter china. The


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  1. Maximum marks: 100 Marks
  2. Attempt all questions
  3. Illustrate with examples wherever applicable


Q.1 Form a project team of six or seven people, elect a leader, and construct a cause-and-effect diagram for bad coffee from a 22 cup coffee maker used in the office.

Ans. Create bar charts for business management problem solving and data comparison using the Concept Draw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Bar Graphs Solution from the Graphs and Charts area of Concept Draw Solution Park.

Create bar charts for event management problem solving and visual data comparison using the Concept Draw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Bar Graphs Solution from the Graphs and Charts area of



Q 2. Formulate a full factorial experiment to determine what factors affect the

Retention rate in college. Identify four factors each at two levels that you feel

Influence retention rate. For example, one factor could be external work

With two levels, 20 and 40 hours per week.

Ans. Retention of an administered antiemetic oral dose and its subsequent absorption during therapy is critically affected by recurrent emesis, a process coordinated by the vomiting centre in the lateral reticular formation of the


Q 3. Given three two-level factors and three suspected two – factor interactions;

Determine the degrees of freedom and the OA.

Ans. statistics, the number of degrees of freedom is the number of values in the final calculation of a statistic that are free to vary.

The number of independent ways by which a dynamic system can move without violating any constraint imposed on it, is called degree of freedom. In other words, the degree of freedom can be defined as the minimum number of independent coordinates that can specify the position of the system completely.


Q4) XYZ Ltd. Wishes to adopt the cost-leadership business strategy for one of its SBUs. How should it ensure operational effectiveness in terms of productivity, processes, people and pace? If, after 1 year, the company wishes to change over to a differentiation business strategy, identify the changes it should bring in its approach to attain operational effectiveness. (10 marks)

Answer: - Cost leadership is a concept developed by Michael Porter, used in business strategy. It describes a way to establish the competitive advantage. Cost leadership, in basic words, means the lowest cost of operation in the industry.[1] The cost leadership is often driven by company efficiency, size, scale, scope and cumulative experience (learning


Q5) In what way is the concept of life cycle and SWOT analysis helpful in making strategic choice at the business level? (10 marks)

Answer: – concept of life cycle:-

Business Life Cycle

Your business is changing. With the passage of time, your company will go through various stages of the business life cycle. Learn what upcoming focuses, challenges and financing sources you will need to succeed.

A business goes through stages of development similar to the cycle of life for the human race. Parenting strategies that work for your toddler cannot be applied to your teenager. The same goes for your small business. It will be faced with a different cycle throughout its life. What you focus on today will change and require different approaches to be successful.

The 7 Stages of the Business Life Cycle



Q6) Explain why business policy is a capstone, integrative course. How can an understanding of business policy help in a career choice? (10 marks)

Answer: – Business policy is a capstone:- Business Policy/Capstone begins with an introduction to the simulated operations and strategic management principles and practice.  A number of simulated companies, one for each team, are created for practice of strategy, policy, and integrated operations.  Students will begin management of their simulated company once they have gathered working knowledge of the firm.  The rest of strategic


Q7) Explain the meaning of strategic management in your own words. Identify the roles that CEOs play in strategic management.

Answer: - Meaning of strategic management:- Strategic management involves the formulation and implementation of the major goals and initiatives taken by a company’s top management on behalf of owners, based on consideration of resources and an assessment of the internal and external environments in which the organization competes.


Q8) Describe the essential characteristics of a mission statement. In what different ways can a mission statement be formulated?

Answer:-Essential characteristics of a mission statement:-


The mission statement needs to include some description of the function of the business. For example, “to promote industrial excellence,” tells customers and employees nothing. A more effective description would be “To provide management consulting services.”

Target Consumers:-

An effective mission statement sets out, in broad terms, the target market. A manufacturer that makes nuts and bolts might set its target market as retail hardware stores

Q9) Explain the technique of ‘balanced scorecard’.


Q9) Explain the term ‘corporate restructuring’. (10 marks)

Answer:-Balanced scorecard:- The balanced scorecard is a strategic planning and management system that is used extensively in business and industry, government, and nonprofit organizations worldwide to align business activities to the vision and strategy of the organization, improve internal and external communications, and monitor organization

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BK ID B1050
MAX.MARKS                                                 60


Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

Q.1 Write a long note on the history of Indian Journalism.

Answer: – The history of journalism, or the development of the gathering and transmitting of news, spans the growth of technology and trade, marked by the advent of specialized techniques for gathering and disseminating information on a regular basis that has caused, as one history of journalism surmises, the steady increase of “the scope of news available to us and the speed with which it is transmitted. Newspapers have always been the primary medium of journalists since 1700, with magazines added in the 18th century, radio and television



Q.2 Discuss in detail the folk forms – Harikatha and Burrakatha. (Introduction – 2 marks, Harikatha – 6 marks, Burrakatha – 2 marks).

Answer:- Introduction:-Indian folk and tribal dances are simple dances, and are performed to express joy. Folk and tribal dances are performed for every possible occasion, to celebrate the arrival of seasons, birth of a child, a wedding and festivals. The dances are extremely simple with minimum of steps or movement. The dances burst with verve and vitality. Men and women perform some dances exclusively, while in some performances men and


Q.3 Write a long note on Public Relations.

Answer:- Public Relations

  • Term should be lower case in all uses: public relations. Not: Public Relations agencies are …. Capitalize the “P” only when the term begins a sentence.
  • Spell out public relations in first references. The abbreviation PR is acceptable as a second reference. PR might be used as a first reference in some situations if the meaning is clear. Use capitals, without periods or a hyphen.


Q.4 Describe in full the four journalistic values ((2 marks each + 2 marks for introduction)).

Answer:- four journalistic values

The Storyteller

  • Primary motivation: Connecting people to each other and to issues that matter in their lives.
  • Patron saints: Michael Lewis, Lane DeGregory
  • Best compliment: “What a powerful lede.”

Strengths: Storytellers render dull material vivid, making broccoli taste like s’mores. In the hands of this journalist, even a mundane City Council meeting becomes a font of whimsy and intrigue. I’d argue this type of journalism has the most general appeal;


Q.5 What is Financial or Economic Reporting? Discuss.

Answer: - A financial statement (or financial report) is a formal record of the financial activities of a business, person, or other entity. Relevant financial information is presented in a structured manner and in a form easy to understand. They typically include basic financial statements, accompanied by a management discussion and analysis:[1]


Q.6 Examine Comparative freedom for media in the USA, India and Non-aligned countries.

Answer: – Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the freedom of communication and expression through mediums including various electronic media and published materials. While such freedom mostly implies the absence of interference from an overreaching state, its preservation may be sought through constitutional or other legal protections.

With respect to governmental information, any government may distinguish which materials are public or protected from disclosure to the public based on

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BK ID B0999


Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

Q.1 Discuss in detail the six factors that can influence the selection of news.

Answer: – 1. The influencer’s power to influence depends on two factors:

  1. Credibility: The influencer’s expertise in a specific domain of knowledge.
  2. Bandwidth: The influencer’s ability to transmit his expert knowledge through a social media channel.
  3. The target’s likelihood to be influenced by a specific influencer depends on four factors:
  4. Relevance (the right information): How closely the target’s information needs coincide with the influencer’s expertise. If the information provided by the influencer is not relevant, then it is just spam to the target and will be ignored.



Q.2 what is objectivity ? Discuss its shortcomings .

Answer: - Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to reality and truth, which has been variously defined by sources. Generally, objectivity means the state or quality of being true even outside of a subject’s individual biases, interpretations, feelings, and imaginings. A proposition is generally considered objectively true (to have objective truth) when its truth conditions are met and are “bias-free”; that is, existing without biases caused by, feelings, ideas, etc. of a sentient subject. A second, broader meaning of the term refers to the ability in any context to judge fairly, without bias or external influence (see journalistic objectivity); this second meaning of objectivity is sometimes used synonymously with neutrality.


Q.3 Discuss the six human sources of news.

Answer: - 1. Water

Freshwater only makes 2.5% of the total volume of the world’s water, which is about 35 million km3. But considering 70% of that freshwater is in the form of ice and permanent snow cover and that we only have access to 200,000km3 of freshwater overall, it isn’t surprising that demand for water could soon exceed supply. The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations is predicting that by 2025, 1.8 billion people will be living in countries or regions

Dear students get fully solved  SMU MBA Spring 2014 assignments

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Dear students get fully solved  SMU MBA Spring 2014 assignments

Send your semester & Specialization name to our mail id :


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BK ID B1027


Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

Q.1 Write a long note on the personal life, works, settings and themes, characters and style (such as surprise endings and love for humanity) of O’Henry.

Answer: – O. Henry was an American writer whose short stories are known for wit, wordplay and clever twist endings. He wrote nearly 600 stories about life in America.

He was born William Sidney Porter on September 11, 1862, in Greensboro, North Carolina. His father, Algernon Sidney Porter, was a medical doctor. When William was three his mother died and he was raised by his grandmother and aunt. He left school at the age of 15 and then had a number of jobs, including bank clerk. In 1896 he was accused of


Q.2 what are the source of short stories? Discuss their origins.

Answer: – Short stories can be an excellent way to break into the competitive field of fiction publishing. Novel publishers are more willing to look at work written by an author whose work has already appeared in print. Magazines and periodicals love the short form, so selling the work can often be simpler than pushing an entire novel manuscript.  Readers are more willing to pay money for work from an author they are already familiar with. Most importantly, though, short stories provide a fertile ground for bigger ideas to spring from.


Q.3 What is speculative fiction (include science fiction, horror fiction, and fantasy)? Discuss in detail.

Answer:- Speculative fiction is an umbrella term encompassing the more fantastical fiction genres, specifically science fiction, fantasy, horror fiction, weird fiction, supernatural fiction, superhero fiction, utopian and dystopian fiction, apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction, and alternate history in literature as well as related static, motion, and virtual arts.

Science fiction: – Science fiction is a genre of fiction dealing with imaginative content such as futuristic settings, futuristic science and technology, space travel, time travel, faster than light travel, parallel universes, and extraterrestrial life. It often explores the potential consequences of scientific and other innovations, and has been called a “literature


Q.4 Discuss Rudyard Kipling’s biography, works and themes, style and salient features.

Answer:- Rudyard Kipling was an English author, famous for his works: Just So Stories, The Jungle Book and “Gunga Din.” He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1907.

Major Themes

Poor treatment of soldiers:-

Kipling was a proud Briton and believed that it was an honor to serve in the country’s military. He regretted that he was unable to serve due to poor eyesight and he encouraged his own son to enlist. He touted the virtues of courage and fighting


Q.5 Write a long analysis on the essays ‘Grace before meat’ and ‘On running after one’s hat’

Answer: - I feel an almost savage envy on hearing that London has been flooded in my absence, while I am in the mere country. My own Battersea has been, I understand, particularly favoured as a meeting of the waters. Battersea was already, as I need hardly say, the most beautiful of human localities. Now that it has the additional splendour of great sheets of water, there must be something quite incomparable in the landscape (or waterscape) of my own

Q.6 Explain point of view? Write a long note on the various ‘points of view’ used to describe how a story gets told.

Answer: – The perspective from which a speaker or writer recounts a narrative or presents information. Depending on the topic, purpose, and audience, writers of nonfiction may rely on the first-person point of view (I, we), the second-person (you, your), or the third-person (he, she, it, they).

“Point of view is the place from which a writer listens in and watches. Choosing one place over another determines what can and can’t be seen, what minds can

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