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  1. 1. Any Four Questions(4X 10=40)
  2. Hospital waste causing environmental pollution and leadingto negative recycling with serious medical and healthconsequences- Discuss at length.

Answer:Hospital is a place of almighty, a place to serve the patient. Since beginning, the hospitals are known for the treatment of sick persons but we are unaware about the adverse effects of the garbage and filth generated by them on human body and environment. Now it is a well established fact that there are many adverse and harmful effects to the environment including human beings which are caused by the “Hospital waste” generated during the patient care. Hospital waste is a potential health hazard to the health care workers, public and flora and fauna of the area. Hospital acquired infection, transfusion transmitted diseases, rising incidence of Hepatitis B, and HIV, increasing land and water pollution lead to increasing possibility of catching many diseases. Air pollution due to emission of hazardous gases by incinerator such as Furan, Dioxin, Hydrochloric acid etc. have compelled the authorities to think seriously about hospital


  1. Keeping the Hospital staff equipped with latest knowledgein the new millennium in clinical, technical and managerialcompetence is the need of the hour. Identify some newmethods to achieve the objective.




  1. List out the various areas of Hospital Administration. Reviewthem in your own style.

Answer: Hospital administration is the management of the hospital as a business. The administration is made up of medical and health services managers — sometimes called health care executives and health care administrators — and their assistants. Administrations range in size, and the duties of the administrator vary with the size and complexity of the hospital.

  • Range of Duties: Administrators are liaisons between hospital boards, other administrators and medical staff. They coordinate hospital activities and formulate its overall politices. Some administrators are in charge of hiring doctors and other staff, performing employee evaluations and directing staff meetings. They may also be responsible for the hospital’s public relations and fundraising programs. Because administrators develop programs for teaching and research hospitals, they must keep up with the latest advances in medicine.
  • Administration Sizes: Large hospitals have several administrators and assistant administrators managing different departments while one administrator is in charge overall. In smaller hospitals, one administrator may be in


  1. What do you understand by the term MBO? Apply theconcept to the Hospitals with appropriate examples.

Answer: Management by objectives (or MBO) is a personnel management technique where managers and employees work together to set, record and monitor goals for a specific period of time. Organizational goals and planning flow top-down through the organization and are translated into personal goals for organizational members. The technique was first championed by management expert Peter Drucker and became commonly used in the 1960s.

The core concept of MBO is planning, which means that an organization and its members are not merely reacting to events and problems but are instead being proactive. MBO requires that employees set measurable personal goals based upon the organizational goals. For example, a goal for a civil engineer may be to complete the infrastructure of a housing division within the next twelve months. The personal goal aligns with the organizational goal of completing



  1. Based on your study, establish certain Managementtechniques for the administrative Improvement andAdministrative Reforms of Hospitals.

Answer:Administration or to be very specific,the Bureaucracy from a traditional point of view has always been change resistant,opaque and rigid. Therefore,in today’s times,where the world is become a global village and the concept of Welfare State and Good Governance looms large it has become imperative to transform the administrative machinery and reform it for the best results in order for it to remain important and not become obsolete.Therefore, administrative improvement and reforms are a priority. So, today we will discuss this very important aspect of administration.


It is an artificial inducement of administrative transformation against resistance.A.F Leaman asserts that Administrative reforms are an effort to mitigate the gap between reality and what is desirable of the administration. And this transformation is for a




Case Studies(20X2=40)

Case No.1

Issues to be Discussed


  1. 1. Facts of the case.

Answer: The hospital’s employment specialist assists applicants in applying for appropriate jobs based on their qualifications and communicates with them throughout the application process. In several departments, applicants undergo a peer interview to ensure that the appropriate candidate is selected for the position.

Once hired, new employees attend an orientation where they learn the importance of organizational values, expectations of employees, customer service, etc. The hospital’s values play a crucial role in the culture of the organization, and employees are expected to continually exhibit these values and behaviors.



  1. 2. By making additional study, Analyse the means to achievethe major objectives as stated in the case.

Answer: Turnover in any company is normal. Exciting job offers or personal reasons cause many employees to turn in their resignations. However, when a high percentage of your employees choose to leave the company, you are faced with the consequences. High turnover rates result in your time spent finding a replacement and walking that individual through the training process. Additionally, your company’s productivity suffers as work is placed on hold until the new hire’s training is complete, or as the new person makes large errors while getting accustomed to the work. The hiring process and other productivity losses may also result in high, unnecessary costs.

  • Decrease turnover rate:When you create a job description for applicants, be accurate and truthful. Explain in detail what the job entails and do not be vague about the expectations of the position. Many employees accept job


  1. 3. How would you address the workforce problems as given inthe case effectively?

Answer: The organization’s culture has created a pleasing environment for both employees and patients. Employees are on a first name basis with one another, they acknowledge each other when passing in the hall, and they always take time to help their colleagues.

This program strives to open the lines of communication between administration and employees by holding monthly luncheons with administrators and employees. Each month, several employees are selected at random to attend the luncheon. The luncheons give employees the opportunity to share ideas and concerns with administrators; administration’s motto is “If you don’t say it, I can’t hear it.” This ethic allows employees to have ownership in the




Case No 2

Hospital Waste Management: A Case Study ofChandigarh Administration

Issues to be discussed

  1. 1. Facts of the Case.

Answer: Hospital waste is the term used to denote unwanted material produced by various medical processes carried out in medical treatment and other laboratory procedures. Hospital wastes comprise both infectious and non-infectious wastes generated in the different sections of a hospital, which if not properly collected, transported or disposed-off, may cause cross-infections in the hospital and pose a major public health hazard and environmental pollution.

The “City beautiful”, Chandigarh has made the implementation of the bio-medical waste rule, 1998 possible by installation of incinerators in PGI, Medical College & Hospital, Sector-32 and in the process of starting incinerator in General Hospital, Sector-16, Chandigarh.

Private Nursing Homes also produce almost equal amount of Solid Waste and bio-medical waste, but they don’t have any independent facility available



  1. 2. Analyze the different categories of waste as discussed inthe case in your style by making additional study.

Answer: Hospital waste is the term used to denote unwanted material produced by various medical processes carried out in medical treatment and other laboratory procedures. Hospital wastes comprise both infectious and non-infectious wastes generated in the different sections of a hospital, which if not properly collected, transported or disposed-off, may cause cross-infections in the hospital and pose a major public health hazard and environmental pollution.

The waste can be classified into the following categories

  1. General Waste:This includes domestic type of


  1. 3. Comment on the framed categories which are 10 innumber.

Answer:Ten numbers of categories have been framed:

(i) Human anatomical waste: All human anatomical wastes and all wastes that are human tissues, organs, or body parts removed by trauma, during surgery, autopsy, birth, research studies, or another hospital procedure, and which are intended for disposal. Pathological waste differs from anatomical waste in that these are typically samples of tissues that are examined in a laboratory setting to understand the nature of the disease or make a diagnosis. For the most part, pathological waste refers to very small tissues sections and body material derived from biopsies or surgical procedures that are then examined in the lab. Anatomical wastes are typically distinguished as recognizable human organs, tissue and body parts, and may require special treatment under some state regulations. Some states do not consider hair, teeth and nails to be pathological/anatomical waste.

(ii) Animal waste: Many facilities have



  1. 4. How would you deal with the problem of Hospital wastemanagement (Add on to the suggestions given in the case)

Answer: Proper management of various types of waste is essential for the upkeep of hospital sanitation. Segregation at source, safe transfer, requisite treatment and disposal through cost effective technologies can bring about significant changes. Infectious waste from hospital and health care Establishments contain pathological wastes, used disposable, semi-wet products (the used blood bags etc.) This waste is often thrown into the community bins instead of being properly treated and disposed-off.

Presently in most Government hospitals and Pvt. Nursing Homes there is no specialized system of handling, collection, transportation and disposal of


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Hospital Administration

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SUBJECT: Hospital Administration




10 marks each


  1. What is hospital and define Hospital Administration?


Answer : A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized staff and equipment. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital, which has an emergency department. A district hospital typically is the major health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care and long-term care. Specialised hospitals include trauma centres, rehabilitation hospitals, children’s hospitals, seniors’ (geriatric) hospitals, and hospitals for dealing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric problems (see psychiatric hospital), certain disease categories. Specialised hospitals can help reduce health care costs compared to general hospitals. A teaching hospital combines assistance to people with teaching to medical students and nurses. The medical facility smaller than a hospital is generally called a clinic. Hospitals have a range of departments (e.g., surgery, and urgent care) and specialist units such as cardiology. Some hospitals will have outpatient departments and some will have chronic treatment units. Common support units include a pharmacy, pathology, and radiology.






  1. What do you mean by personnel administration in hospital?


Answer : A hospital is a bustling treatment center for patients, and a complex, interdisciplinary workplace for healthcare personnel. One person is responsible for keeping this symbiotic infrastructure running smoothly – the hospital administrator.


As the head of operations, a hospital administrator oversees clinical units, departments or an entire hospital. These professionals manage personnel, finances and facility practices according to a distinct set of policies and procedures established by trustees. They keep abreast of new laws and regulations in the industry and advances in medicine and medical technology. A hospital administrator also represents the institution she




  1. What is the difference between hospital management and hospital administration?

Answer : The field of healthcare is growing by leaps and bounds, and the healthcare industry is estimated to contribute around six million new jobs to the workforce over the next decade. This represents a nearly 30 percent growth in jobs from the healthcare field alone. There are many different career paths that a student can take, whether your interest ultimately lies in healthcare administration jobs, healthcare management jobs, or some other facet of the medical and healthcare field. A great place to start can be earning a healthcare administration or healthcare management degree online or offline, which can prepare you to climb to the heights of your chosen career path, regardless of where you may choose to specialize or focus your efforts once you graduate.


However, because some terminology used in healthcare can sound surprisingly similar, including terms such as “administration” and “management,” it can be helpful as well to learn before you enroll in an advanced degree program what the



  1. What is the scope of hospital administration for MBA students?


Answer : ALL labour that uplifts humanity has dignity and importance and should be undertaken with painstaking excellence, said Martin Luther King, Jr. The Master’s in Hospital Administration course is meant for those people who share these sentiments, because job responsibilities range from giving astute guidance in administration to managing the daily affairs of the hospital.


Efficient management can play a role in saving more lives. With the advent of medical tourism and rapid development in technologies the health sector is emerging as one of the fastest growing sectors in India. Several corporates and business organisations have forayed into the healthcare sector, thus resulting in the healthcare delivery system becoming more organised, systematic and efficient. Hence, the healthcare industry needs professionals who can handle these challenges.


The programmes enable individuals to take





  1. What is medical negligence ?


Answer : Medical negligence is improper, unskilled, or negligent treatment of a patient by a physician, dentist, nurse, pharmacist, or other health care professional.


Negligence is the predominant theory of liability concerning allegations of medical malpractice, making this type of litigation part of Tort Law. Since the 1970s, medical malpractice has been a controversial social issue. Physicians have complained about the large number of malpractice suits and have urged legal reforms to curb large damage awards, whereas tort attorneys have argued that negligence suits are an effective way of compensating victims of negligence and of policing the medical profession.


A person who alleges negligent medical malpractice must prove four elements:

(1) a duty of care was owed by the physician;

(2) the physician violated the applicable standard of care;

(3) the person suffered a compensable injury





  1. Explain the need for man power planning in hospital.


Answer : Manpower Planning is the primary function of the hospital human resource manager but before the stats filling individual jobs, he should consider the overall management problem of making the best use of available human resources. Just as the controller of finance budget for the best use of financial resources, the human resources manager is basically concerned with budget for the best use of human resources. Manpower planning call for the integration of information, formulation of policies and forecasting of future requirements of human resources so that the right personnel are available for the right job at the right time.


Manpower planning starts with the analysis of the future needs of the hospital and its objectives. It determines organization structure, decides what jobs have to be filled and what their requirements are.Short-term manpower planning –two year






  1. Classify hospitals with examples


Answer : 1.   (1)   Hospitals are classified as general hospitals, convalescent hospitals, hospitals for chronic patients, active treatment teaching psychiatric hospitals, active treatment hospitals for alcoholism and drug addiction and regional rehabilitation hospitals, and are graded as,


(a)   Group A hospitals, being general hospitals providing facilities for giving instruction to medical students of any university, as evidenced by a written agreement between the hospital and the university with which it is affiliated, and hospitals approved in writing by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons for providing


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Q.1. Elaborate on the system of HR Planning. Outline the steps to be undertaken by organizations to effectively engage in HR Planning.


Answer : The human resources department is a critical component for employees in any business, regardless of its size. This support system is responsible for everything from payroll to hiring a new employee. Human resource planning is an extended part of this system, and is used to ultimately structure and meet organizational goals.


While a traditional human resource role serves as an administrative control function, human resource planning develops strategies for matching the skills and size of the workforce to organizational needs. In other words, the planning system specifically recruits, trains and restructures the staff/personnel needed to meet business objectives and any changes within the external environment.



Three main responsibilities are important to complete in order to prepare for the planning process. These responsibilities include forecasting the demand for labor, performing a supply analysis, and balancing supply and demand considerations.




Q.2. Discuss the various ways in which the commitment of errors in performance appraisal can be minimized.

Answer : Many managers handle performance appraisals quite poorly. And the result is not only an unpleasant meeting, but one where the manager and his or her staff member never quite understand each other, never quite appreciate the other’s point of view, and never quite settle on appropriate goals for the coming year.


It’s almost inevitable that the staff member will end up less happy and less productive than he or she was before!


In fact, there are five big mistakes that managers often make in conducting performance appraisals. Fortunately, these mistakes are easily avoided once you make a conscious effort to avoid them.



Mistake #1: Waiting For The Performance Appraisal To Give Feedback

This is the biggie, and all too common. It’s





Q.3. The nature and scope of the Human Resource Management Systems keeps on evolving with the changes in the external and internal environments of organizations. Elaborate on the same. { marks : 20 }

Answer : Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. Human Resource Management can also be performed by line managers.

Human Resource Management is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training.

Human resource management (HRM) is the strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization’s most valued assets – the




Q.4. what are some of the traditional and current sources of recruitment used by organizations? What are their pros and cons?

Answer : The balanced selection of the recruitment sources to be used in the organization is a key success factor for the effective recruitment process. The organization can choose from many recruitment sources as it can optimize the recruitment process. The recruitment sources drive the costs, length and quality of the job candidates (including the number of job resumes needed to handle with).


The organization has to choose the recruitment sources, which work best for the industry. The organization has to find the unique recruitment sources for the key job positions as it attracts the best job candidates sooner than the competitors in





Q.5. How does HRM enable organizations to adapt to the dynamic changes in the environment? Illustrate with examples.

Answer : Human resource management is not a new concept is an adaptation and transforming of older ideas from the twentieth century about the management of people. As we know, people have been working as part of group for thousands of years. Huge numbers of workers were constructing ancient monuments, such as the pyramids or Great Wall of China. An appropriate management, motivate people, and the right strategic make the work effective and successful. In addition human resource management is defined ‘as a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization’s most valued assets- the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its objectives’ (Armstrong )






Q.6. As an HR executive, how would you go about devising HRIS for a mid – sized organization?


Answer : Once you’ve established which HRIS model of delivery works best for your business, you need to figure out just what kind of system you want to invest in. The easiest way to divide HRIS vendors is to split them into two categories: suite and niche. Vendors of suite systems offer brawny, many-faceted software applications comprised of multiple HR functions, each of which can be utilized as either an independent module or as part of a more universal package. Vendors of niche solutions, meanwhile, cater to one specific area of HR management, like time and attendance, payroll, or staffing.


Both niche and suite solutions have their advantages – it just depends which strategy best suits the needs of your company. A large HRIS suite





Q 7 . Discuss the various principles and purposes of promotion and types and purpose of transfers.


Answer : In simpler terms, promotion refers to upward movement in present job leading to greater responsibilities, higher status and better salary. Promotion may be temporary or permanent depending upon the organizational requirement. According to Clothier and Spriegel,


“promotion is the transfer of an employee to a job which pays more money or one that carries some preferred status.”


In the corporate sector employee promotions doesn’t make much difference as that of in government sector. In the government the word promotion is the ultimate desire for an employee for the service rendered by him in the organisation and this is the only way for an employee career development in the government sector. Promotion is the ultimate motivating factor for any employee because moves employee forward in hierarchy of concern organisation added with additional responsibility, higher respect, honour, with increase in grade pay and allowances.




In countries like India, employee promotions are withhold by employers if any enquiry is pending on concerned employee due to his disobedience of duties or misuse of his powers especially in government departments. Until clearance of enquiry pending before COMPETENT AUTHORITY on concerned employee promotion will not


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Case –1 ( 20 Marks)




  1. If you were the programmer, would you want to work at Microsoft? Why or Why not?

Answer : If i were the programmer i would love to work at microsoft but not interested to work like BULL just to become a MILLIONAIRE





  1. How many activities in this case can you tie into specific motivation theories? List the

activities; list the motivation theories, and how they apply.

Answer : To my knowledge STOCK OPTION PROGRAM vs MASSAGES(what kind of)

They were applied i






  1. As Microsoft continues to get larger and its growth rate flattens do you think Management

will have to modify any of its motivation practices? Elaborate.

Answer :  MOTIVATION has a specific purpose but cannot be applied for everything. Management need to consider BITTER REALITIES that could help in making their employees understand what could be done proportional the




  1. Can money act as a motivator? Explain.

Answer : Motivation and performance are very complex issues affected by many factors. No one factor can guarantee motivation or performance in the absence of othercritical factors .Money cannot be effectively substituted for good management. Some people think that money can’t be used to motivate employees and that is truefor some employees, but for a large percentage of the workforce it does not have to be that way.






Case –2 ( 20 Marks)






  1. What should Atlantic Mutual Management do, if anything, to cope with the aftereffects of


Answer:The Management can organize a seminar/ presentation with help from a professional counselor about the various disasters i.e man-made, natural calamity, terrorist attacks etc. with emphasis on how people




  1. How long would You expect employees to be adversely affected by 9/11 if a company

provides no formal assistance for dealing with anger and stress?

Answer :The span of time to decide on the effects of the trauma would be really difficult as it would wary according to each one’s




  1. What, if anything, should Management do about employees who appear to be suffering from

such kind or trauma and stress, but will neither admit it nor accept help from their employee?

Answer :The Management can propagate CSR initiatives with keeping community welfare as its theme. Voluntary Social work and Helping out




  1. Outline the role of HR specialist in providing a safe and healthy environment for employees

Answer : HR Specialist is the effective change agent for providing a safe and healthy environment to the employees. He needs to understand the emotions of individuals and their concerns as well as the group matrix within the organizations to which




Case –3( 20 Marks)




  1. Do you think the company has any orientation programme? If yes, discuss its effectiveness.


Answer : No according to me the company hasn’t provided any orientation program. Because when one join a new company often have lots of questions about the structureof their new company, its culture, and its goals. A good orientation program cananswer many of those questions and start off new employees working in the rightdirection.Orientation is a programs which can take place in-house or off-site, with audio-visual tools





  1. If employees were properly selected, there should be no need for an orientation programme”.

Comment on the statement.


Answer : I do not agree on the statement that if employees were properly selected there should be no need for an orientation programme this situation will not helpemployee how much good he is and also results in the poor results to the organisation because giving a proper orientation program can leads to:


To Reduce Start-up-Costs

Proper orientation can help the employee get “up to speed” much more quickly, thereby reducing the costs associated with learning the job.


  1. To Reduce Anxiety



  1. If You were Patil, how would you react to the above situation?

Answer : If I was Patil, I wouldn’t be angry because it was Patil’s mistake not to take consent before placing an order in his



  1. Discuss the purpose of orientation. What are various requisites of an effective programme?


Answer : Purposes of Orientation


Employers have to realize that orientation isn’t just a nice gesture put on by the organization. It serves as an important element of the recruitment and retention process. Some key purposes are:


  • To Reduce Startup Costs: Proper orientation can help the employee get up to speed much more quickly, thereby reducing the costs associated with learning the job.


  • To Reduce Anxiety: Any employee, when put into a new, strange situation, will experience anxiety that can impede his or her ability to learn to do the job. Proper orientation helps to reduce anxiety that results from entering into an unknown situation, and helps provide guidelines for





Case –4 ( 20 Marks)




  1. According to You, why did the Bs1110 Scheme succeed and the TQM Scheme failed in ABC

engineering? Define the term “workers” participation in management. Bring out the prerequisites for its success.


Answer : Bs1110 Scheme succeed because a total quality Management Scheme was introduced to increase efficiency and quality control. Throughout the 1990’s, more flexible arrangements had been introduced together with a breakdown of old work demarcation lines. Machines were now built by flexible teams of workers employing different skills like fitters, electricians, hydraulic engineers, etc.


TQM Scheme failed because team leaders had felt uncomfortable in their roles and there has been a lot of skepticism from some of the workers.





  1. Explain in your own words what empowerment means to You. Also discuss “A worker is a

worker, a Manager a Manager and never the two shall meet.” Do You agree? Why?


Answer : Empowerment means to gain knowledge and understanding. Self empowerment means to gain knowledge and understanding of the self. Think of it like this. If you knew absolutely nothing about a car and its inner workings, and the car broke down somewhere far from home. You would have no idea what to do to fix the car, so that you can go on. Yet if you had a good knowledge and understanding of the car and its inner workings then you could figure out what needs to be done, get the tools and spares to do it, and fix it. In this situation you would be empowered (feel empowered) for you would know what to do to get yourself going again. You would not just sit in the car and wait for someone to come and sort out the problem for you.


So self-empowerment means to gain



  1. What suggestions would You give to a similar company who were thinking of introducing

Total Quality Management to make it a success?


Answer : A core definition of total quality management (TQM) describes a management approach to long–term success through customer satisfaction. In a TQM effort, all members of an organization participate in improving processes, products, services, and the culture in which they work.


The Primary Elements of TQM


Total quality management can be summarized as a management system for a customer-focused organization that involves all employees in continual improvement. It uses strategy, data, and effective communications to integrate the quality discipline into the culture and activities of the organization.


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PROGRAM Master of Business Administration- MBA
BK ID B1735



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.




1 Define Human Resource Planning (HRP).Discuss the objectives of Human Resource Planning.


Answer : Human resources planning includes strategic management of a department responsible for your work force. In the human resources professional community, one of the topics revisited over and over is getting involved in organizational objectives to make an impact on business success. Your company can attain its goals by including the human resources department in matters that affect the business overall. In the meantime, your human resources has its own objectives, which can be integrated into the organizational objectives.


Raising Level of Job Satisfaction

Human resources planning today has a number of timely issues leaders recognize as objectives that will improve the workforce. One of the goals is raising the level of job satisfaction. You can measure job satisfaction through employee opinion surveys,




Q.2 Suppose you have joined as an HR and you are asked to carry out the HR Audit process in your organization. What are the methods you will consider while implementing the HR Audit process?


Answer : Human resources audit tools help you conduct thorough evaluations of your human resources effectiveness. You can use these tools to help you identify HR processes that are functioning well and those that require improvements. Common HR areas you should audit include your compensation system, performance appraisal systems, policies and procedures and health and safety practices.

Interviews and Questionnaires

Interviews and questionnaires help you acquire feedback from all of your employees, including top management. These tools are ideal when you want to get a better understanding of the work your employees perform. You can find out about their





3 What are the areas of HR Audit? Explain any four of them


Answer : Areas of HR Audit

A regular human resources audit can improve the services your HR department renders to both employees and applicants. It can also determine whether your organization is in compliance with labor and employment laws. Auditing all of your HR practices and functions can take time and resources. Small businesses without enough staff to devote their full-time attention to an audit should consider hiring an external consultant to evaluate their HR systems. Whether you use in-house resources or an external consultant to conduct your HR audit, follow an outline to keep your audit focused.

Personnel Files

The starting point for an HR audit is up to the department lead; however, it’s reasonable to begin with an audit of your company’s personnel files. Review the department’s system for handling file materials, whether copies of employment actions are immediately filed in the appropriate folders and if the files containing health and






4 What do you mean by HR Scorecard? Explain the steps undertaken to approach a Human Resource Scorecard.


Answer : The HR Scorecard Approach

HR creates value by engaging in activities that produce the employee behaviors the company needs to achieve strategic goals. Managers use an HR Scorecard to measure the HR function’s effectives and efficiency in producing these employee behaviors and thus in achieving the company’s strategic goals. The HR Scorecard – shows the causal link between the HR activities, and the emergent employee behaviors, and the resulting firm-wide strategic outcomes and performance.


  1. Creating a HR Scorecard – Three types of information are needed to create a HR Scorecard.





Q.5 Write a brief note on the effectiveness of Human Resource Development Audit as an intervention.


Answer : Perhaps India is the first country to formally establish a totally dedicated HRD (Human Resources development) Department separated from the Personnel Department. This was designed in the year 1974 when the term HRD itself was not very popular in the USA. Two consultants from the Indian Institute of Management , Ahmadabad after reviewing the effectiveness of the performance appraisal system and training in Larsen & Toubro recommended an Integrated HR System to be established and the department dealing with development issues be separated out from the personnel department and be called the





6 Write a short note on the following:

a)Flanholtz model(Rewards evaluation model)

Answer : Why do some entrepreneurs succeed, while others with ventures that seem equally promising, experience difficulties and even failure?


Eric Flamholtz, Professor of Human Resource Management & Organizational Behaviour in the Anderson Graduate School of Management, suggests that firms that succeed in the long term have progressed successfully through six key tasks:


  • Identification and definition of a viable market niche


  • Development of products or services for the chosen market niche


  • Acquisition and development of





  1. b) Pekin Ogan model

Answer : Pekin, as he prefers to be called, teaches Managerial Accounting with flawless engagement, focusing on class discussion and endless whiteboard brainstorms as the primary source of learning. He sings, dances, loves his wife, hates the “word” incentivize (it should be motivate), and lives for teaching. Pekin indirectly teaches from a triple-bottom-line management perspective, where people, profits and planet have to play nice





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MU0012 – Employee Relations Management

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PROGRAM Master of Business Administration- MBA
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MU0012 – Employee Relations Management
BK ID B1734



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.



1 Define Strategy. Describe the different strategy levels in an organization


Answer :  Strategy has been studied for years by business leaders and by business theorists. Yet, there is no definitive answer about what strategy really is.


One reason for this is that people think about strategy in different ways.


For instance, some people believe that you must analyze the present carefully, anticipate changes in your market or industry, and, from this, plan how you’ll succeed in the future. Meanwhile, others think that the future is just too difficult to predict, and they prefer to evolve their strategies organically.





4 What do you mean by Human Resource Information System (HRIS)? Describe the various modules of HRIS. Discuss some of the HRIS software.


Answer : HRIS, which is also known as a human resource information system or human resource management system (HRMS), is basically an intersection of human resources and information technology through HR software. This allows HR activities and processes to occur electronically.


To put it another way, a HRIS may be viewed as a way, through software, for businesses big and small to take care of a number of activities, including those related to human resources, accounting, management, and payroll. A HRIS allows a company to





Q.3 As an HR of a Company, you are asked to focus on the causes of Grievance and the Grievance handling procedure. What according to you are the reasons of Grievance? Explain the pre-requisites you will consider while addressing Grievance handling procedure

Answer : Causes of Grievance:


(i) Promotions; (ii) Amenities; (iii) Continuity of service; (iv) Compensation; (v) Disciplinary action; (vi) Fines; (vii) Increments (viii) Leave; (ix) Medical Benefits; (x) Nature of the job; (xi) Payment of wages; (xii) Acting promotion; (.xiii) Recovery of dues; (xiv) Safety appliance; (xv) Superannuation; (xvi) Supersession; (xvii) Transfer; (xviii) Victimization; and (xix) Conditions of work.


Pre-requisites of a Grievance Handling procedure:


According to Michael j. jucius, the term ‘grievances’ means “any discontent or dissatisfaction, whether expressed or not and whether valid or not,



4 Discuss the Collective Bargaining Process and its issues



Answer : Collective bargaining is a process whereby trade unions, representing workers, and employers through their representatives, treat and negotiate with a view to the conclusion of a collective agreement or renewal thereof or the resolution of disputes.


A collective agreement is usually an agreement in writing between an employer and a union, on behalf of workers employed by the employer. It contains provisions reflecting terms and conditions of employment of the workers, and conferring to them their rights, privileges and responsibilities.


Sometimes the terms “bargaining” and “negotiating” are used to describe the same process. Theoretically, the term bargaining is probably better used to describe the economic interaction between an employer and an employee which is finalized in the individual contract, whether written or unwritten. When an employer hires a worker,



5 What is a Trade Union and What are its activities? Explain the functions of Trade Unions.


Answer : A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals such as protecting the integrity of its trade, achieving higher pay, increasing the number of employees an employer hires, and better working conditions. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members (rank and file members) and negotiates labour contracts (collective bargaining) with employers. The most common purpose of these associations or unions is “maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment”. This may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring, firing and promotion of workers




6 Write a brief note on the following:

  1. a) Trait theory

Answer : In 1936, psychologist Gordon Allport found that one English-language dictionary alone contained more than 4,000 words describing different personality traits. He categorized these traits into three levels:


  • Cardinal Traits: These are traits that dominate an individual’s whole life, often to the point that the person becomes known specifically for these traits. People with such personalities often become so known for these traits that their names are often synonymous with these qualities. Consider the origin and




b)ERG theory

Answer : Alderfer’s ERG Theory

ERG theory was developed by organizational behavior scholar Clayton Alderfer to everyone the problems with Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory. ERG theory groups human needs into three broad categories: existence, relatedness, and growth. (Notice that the theory’s name is based on the first letter of each need.) As Exhibit 5.1 illustrates, existence needs correspond to Maslow’s physiological and safety needs. Relatedness needs refer mainly to Maslow’s belongingness needs. Growth needs correspond to Maslow’s esteem and self-actualization needs.


Existence needs include a person’s physiological and


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MU0011 – Management and Organisational Development

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PROGRAM Master of Business Administration- MBA
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MU0011 – Management and Organisational Development
BK ID B1765



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.



1 Define Organizational Development (OD).What are the characteristics of OD?

Answer : Organisational Development (OD) can be described as the systematic process to change the culture, system and behaviour of organization. It is process that helps in solving organizational problems and achieving organizational objectives. Organisational Development works as important mechanism that helps in impressing the organization and its employee through planned and established system.


Characteristics of OD :


The ability to interact effectively with others can



2 As an HR, you find that the OD professional in your organization is not competent enough. What are the competencies you will consider in a good OD professional?


Answer : Competencies

Good and professional employees know their job roles inside and out. The most valuable employees understand more than just their jobs; they understand the industries in which their companies operate, the way in which their companies functions in big-picture terms and the way in which their individual job roles contribute to the success of their firms. Good employees come to an interview already possessing much of the skills they will require on the job, but the ability to learn quickly can often trump previous experience


Characteristics of a good OD professional are







3 Discuss the Ethical Dilemmas in practicing OD


Answer : Organizational ethics is the ethics of an organization, and it is how an organization ethically responds to an internal or external stimulus. Organizational ethics is interdependent with the organizational culture. Although, it is akin to both organizational behaviour (OB) and business ethics on the micro and macro levels, organizational ethics is neither OB, nor is it solely business ethics (which includes corporate governance and corporate ethics). Organizational ethics express the values of an organization to its employees and/or other entities irrespective of governmental and/or regulatory laws.


There are at least four elements that aim to create an ethical culture and behaviour of employees within an organization. These elements are:




  1. 4 What is Performance Appraisal? What are the purposes and characteristics of Performance Appraisal? Describe the steps in Performance Appraisal System.


Answer : Performance Appraisals is the assessment of individual’s performance in a systematic way. It is a developmental tool used for all round development of the employee and the organization. The performance is measured against such factors as job knowledge, quality and quantity of output, initiative, leadership abilities, supervision, dependability, co-operation, judgment, versatility and health. Assessment should be confined to past as well as potential performance also. The second definition is more focused on behaviors as a part of assessment because behaviors do affect job results.





Q.5 What is a Learning Organization? Discuss the attributes of a learning organization. Explain the in learning various learning disciplines organization


Answer : The Learning Organisation is a concept that is becoming an increasingly widespread philosophy in modern companies, from the largest multinationals to the smallest ventures. What is achieved by this philosophy depends considerably on one’s interpretation of it and commitment to it. The quote below gives a simple definition that we felt was the true ideology behind the Learning Organisation.


“A Learning Organisation is one in which people at all levels, individuals and collectively, are continually increasing their capacity to produce results they really care about.”






6 Write short notes :

  1. a) Role Analysis Technique(RAT)

Answer : Role analysis technique (RAT) is used to help employees get a better grasp on their role in an organization. In the first step of a RAT intervention, people define their perception of their role and contribution to the overall company effort in front of a group of coworkers. Group members then provide feedback to more




  1. b) Reward Systems

Answer : Every company needs a strategic reward system for employees that addresses these four areas: compensation, benefits, recognition and appreciation. The problem with reward systems in many businesses today is twofold: They’re missing one or more of these elements (usually recognition and/or appreciation), and the elements that are addressed aren’t properly aligned with the company’s other corporate strategies.



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MU0010 – Manpower Planning and Resourcing

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PROGRAM Master of Business Administration- MBA
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MU0010 – Manpower Planning and Resourcing
BK ID B1765



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.




1 What do you mean by Manpower Planning? Describe the various stages & obstacles involved in Manpower Planning.


Answer : Manpower planning means planning means deciding the number and type of the human resources required for each job, unit and the total company for a particular future date in order to carry out organizational activities. Manpower planning may be viewed as foreseeing the human resources requirement of an organization and the future supply of human resources and (i) making necessary adjustments between these two and organizational plans and (ii) foreseeing the possibility of developing the supply of manpower resources in order to match it with the requirements by introducing necessary changes in the functions of human resources management.


The process of manpower planning in an organization involve following steps:



  • Analysing the corporate and unit level strategies.


  • Demand Forecasting: Forecasting



2 What do you mean by Human Resource Accounting (HRA)? Discuss the objectives and advantages of HRA.


Answer :  Human Resource Accounting (HRA) means to measure the cost and value of the people (i.e. of employees and managers) in the organisation. It measures the cost incurred to recruit, hire, train and develop employees and managers.

HRA also finds out the present economic value of its employees and managers. After measuring the cost and value of its employees and managers, the organisation prepares a report. This report is called HRA Report. It is shown to the top level management. It can also be shown to the employees, managers and outside investors.



3 Explain the Selection process undertaken by an organization.


Answer : Employee Selection is the process of putting right men on right job. It is a procedure of matching organizational requirements with the skills and qualifications of people. Effective selection can be done only when there is effective matching. By selecting best candidate for the required job, the organization will get quality performance of employees. Moreover, organization will face less of absenteeism and employee turnover problems. By selecting right candidate for the required job, organization will also save time and money. Proper screening of candidates takes place during selection procedure. All the potential candidates who apply for the given job are tested.


But selection must be differentiated from recruitment, though these are two phases of employment process. Recruitment is considered to be a




4 Discuss in details the Employee Exit Process


Answer : Employee exit management is the process used within many businesses to terminate employees in a professional manner. It applies to employees who have resigned and those that have been terminated by the company.

When an employee is terminated there are a number of considerations that an organization needs to make in order to cleanly end the relationship between the company and the employee. The company as a legal entity has a responsibility to the employee which may extend beyond the period of employment and this is the primary focus of the exit procedure.




5 As an HR, you are asked to focus on the Talent Development Process in your organization .How would you define Talent Development? Explain the necessity of Talent Development from an HR perspective. Explain the model for achieving excellence in Talent Development


Answer :  Although unemployment figures may at times be on the up, it is a widely accepted fact that in the long term, a shortage of qualified staff is one of the greatest challenges facing us today. Increasing globalisation means that we have to fight even harder to secure the human resources and organisational skills available, and in particular this means that companies must fight to develop and retain special talents.


Talented staff may be particularly skilled in




6 Write short notes on the following:



Answer : Recruitment refers to the process of attracting, screening, selecting, and onboarding a qualified person for a job. At the strategic level it may involve the development of an employer brand which includes an ‘employee offering’.


Objectives of Recruitment


Finding Skilled Employees

Most obviously, when recruiting new employees, you must aim to find those with particular skills and training. Determine how much education and experience you deem appropriate for the position before starting your search.




b)Succession Planning

Answer : Succession planning is a process whereby an organization ensures that employees are recruited and developed to fill each key role within the company. Through your succession planning process, you recruit superior employees, develop their knowledge, skills, and abilities, and prepare them for advancement or promotion into ever more challenging roles.


Actively pursuing succession planning ensures that employees are constantly developed to fill each needed role. As your organization expands, loses key employees, provides promotional opportunities, and increases sales, your succession planning guarantees that you have employees on hand ready and waiting to fill new roles.

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BK ID B1483



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.



Q1. Waterfall Model, V-Model and Spiral Model are of the software development processes. Companies are using these models to have a systematic and defined approach in software development. Which of the four phases are involved in the software development process?


Answer : Four phases in software development process :


There are various software development approaches defined and designed which are used/employed during development process of software, these approaches are also referred as “Software Development Process Models” (e.g. Waterfall model, incremental model, V-model, iterative model, etc.). Each process model follows a particular life cycle in order to ensure success in process of software development.


Software life cycle models describe phases of the software cycle and the order in which those phases are executed. Each phase produces deliverables required by the next phase in the life cycle. Requirements are translated into design. Code is produced according to the design which is called development phase. After coding and development the testing verifies the deliverable of the implementation phase against requirements.

There are following six phases in every Software development life cycle model:


  • Requirement gathering and analysis
  • Design
  • Implementation or coding and testing



  1. 2 Software estimation is the first phase of project planning and it is the process of judging a software product and solving the problem associated with the software project. We follow some important steps to achieve reliable cost and effort estimates. Explain the different estimation models and estimation techniques.


Ans: The term refers to a process of writing and maintaining the source code, but in a broader sense of the term it includes all that is involved between the conception of the desired software through to the final manifestation of the software, ideally in a planned and structured process. Software development is the computer programming, documenting, and testing involved in creating and maintaining applications and frameworks involved in a software release life cycle and resulting in a software product. Therefore, software development may include research, new development, prototyping, modification, reuse, re-engineering, maintenance, or any other activities that result in software products


Different estimation models:




Q3. a. You are a SCM manager in a software company. How will you establish a software configuration management process in a company?



Answer : Software configuration management process :

In software engineering, software configuration management (SCM) is the task of tracking and controlling changes in the software, part of the larger cross-discipline field of configuration management.” SCM practices include revision control and the establishment of baselines. If something goes wrong, SCM can determine what was changed and who changed it. If a configuration is working well, SCM can determine how to replicate it across many hosts.

Procedure :

CM is the practice of handling changes systematically so that a system maintains its integrity over time. CM implements the policies, procedures, techniques, and tools that are required to manage, evaluate proposed changes, track the status of changes, and to maintain an inventory of system and support documents as the system changes. CM programs and plans provide technical and administrative direction to the development and implementation the procedures, functions, services,




  1. You are appointed as a software developer in a software company and you have been asked by your project manager to check details of the bugs from the previous version. How will you gather details associated with the various bugs in the previous version?



Answer : A bug tracking system or defect tracking system is a software application that is designed to help keep track of reported software bugs in software development efforts. It may be regarded as a type of issue tracking system.

Many bug tracking systems, such as those used by most open source software projects, allow users to enter bug reports directly. Other systems are used only internally in a company or organization doing software development. Typically bug tracking systems are integrated with other software project management applications. Having a bug tracking system is extremely valuable in software development, and they are used extensively by companies developing software products. Consistent use of a bug or issue tracking system is considered one of the “hallmarks of a good software team”

Details of bug fixation cycle :

The main benefit of a bug-tracking system is to provide a clear centralized overview of development requests (including both bugs and improvements, the boundary is often fuzzy), and their state. The prioritized list of pending items (often called backlog) provides valuable inp



Q4. a. If you are a software engineer you must be expert in the field of software, hardware and also database. It has been listed by the industry professionals that time and effort are the most important factors in the system analysis stage. Briefly explain the steps used in system analysis.



Answer : Steps used in system analysis :

1.Identify system users

  1. Define main users goals
  2. Define system usage patterns
  3. Invent functional solutions to meet users and usage patterns
  4. Define main navigation paths
  5. Create UI mock ups
  6. Polish UI Elements
  7. Identify System Users :

This is the most important question. If you miss with users, you will build the wrong solution. All further analyses will relay on defined user roles, so be very careful with




  1. If you are a software developer in small company, how will you conduct a specification review?

Answer : Conduction of specification review :

Writing software specifications is more complicated than one would initially suspect. The specification needs to be completely clear so that it can not be misinterpreted by an implementation or application developer in order to achieve full interoperability. UniSoft offers a specification review service to its’ customers. This activity offers 1.two major benefits to the specification authoring body:

2.It provides a very thorough review of the specification.

3.A complete set of test assertions (test descriptions) are produced which create a building block for generating a full conformance test suite for the standard.

During the process of producing the test assertions and performing the specification review, UniSoft will highlight the following:

specification inconsistencies



Q.5 Write short note on


  1. Unit testing
  2. System testing
  3. Debugging
  4. Verification and validation


Ans:  a. Unit testing: In computer programming, unit testing is a software testing method by which individual units of source code, sets of one or more computer program modules together with associated control data, usage procedures, and operating procedures are tested to determine if they are fit for use. Intuitively, one can view a unit as the smallest testable part of an application. In procedural programming, a unit could be an entire module, but it is more commonly an individual function or procedure. In object-oriented programming, a unit is often an entire interface, such as


  1. System testing: System testing of software or hardware is testing conducted on a complete, integrated system to evaluate the system’s compliance with its specified requirements. System testing falls within the scope of black box testing, and as such, should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic

System testing of



  1. Debugging:


Debugging is a methodical process of finding and reducing the number of bugs, or defects, in a computer program or a piece of electronic hardware, thus making it behave as expected. Debugging tends to



  1. Verification and validation:


In software project management, software testing, and software engineering, verification and validation (V&V) is the process of checking that a software system meets specifications and that it fulfills its intended purpose.




Q6. What are the different methods of software prototypes and tools?


Answer : Software prototype :

Software prototyping, refers to the activity of creating prototypes of software applications, i.e., incomplete versions of the software program being developed. It is an activity that can occur in software development and is comparable to prototyping as known from other fields, such as mechanical engineering or manufacturing.

A prototype typically simulates only a few aspects of, and may be completely different from, the final product.

Methods of software prototype :

1.Horizontal prototypes

The purpose of a horizontal prototype is to develop one entire layer of the design at the same time. This type of prototyping is most common with large

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BK ID B1217



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.


Q1. Suppose the employee name, employee id, designation, salary, attendance and address of any employee has to be stored in a database. You can store these data in a sequential address book or it can be stored on a hard disk, using a computer and software like Microsoft Excel. Using this example define a database. List and explain the various procedures carried on in a DBMS with a detailed example of the database.

Answer : Database :

A database is an organized collection of data. The data is typically organized to model relevant aspects of reality (for example, the availability of rooms in hotels), in a way that supports processes requiring this information (for example, finding a hotel with vacancies). Database management systems (DBMSs) are specially designed applications that interact with the user, other applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data. A general-purpose database management system (DBMS) is a software system designed to allow the definition, creation, querying,



Q2. Level 2 cache has got higher latency than Level 1 by 2 times to 10 times in 512 KiB or more. Its value is nearer to kilobyte. This is one of the levels of memory hierarchy. Define memory hierarchy. What are the other levels in memory hierarchy? Explain in one life each for each of them.


Answer : Memory hierarchy :

The term memory hierarchy is used in computer architecture when discussing performance issues in computer architectural design, algorithm predictions, and the lower level programming constructs such as involving locality of reference. A “memory hierarchy” in computer storage distinguishes each level in the “hierarchy” by response time. Since response time, complexity, and capacity are related, the levels may also be distinguished by the controlling technology.

Levels in memory hierarchy :

Different types of memory perform and serve different purposes in the overall scheme of computer engineering. They are classified based on their purpose, speed, complexities and cost of manufacturing. Generally, faster memory costs more to design and manufacture. As a result, their capacity is usually more limited. It is also true the other way around, slower




Q.3                  Employee


Emp Id Name Project Salary Dep. no.
MUL 1 Ramya PR 1 40000 1
MUL 2 Nupur PR 1 45000 2
SMU 1 Rajesh PR 3 20000 2
SMU 2 Vinay PR 2 50000 3
SMU 3 Anil PR 2 80000 2


Department :


Dept id D name Place
1 MIS Bangalore
2 HRM Bangalore
3 Finance Chennai
4 Research Bangalore






Using these tables answer the following question

  1. If we want to see all the employees with salary between 40000 and 50000, which query can be used?
  2. Select employee name from EMPLOYEE table, whose name starts with R
  3. Explain aggregate functions and grouping in detail


Ans :  A select query retrieves data from one or more of the tables in your database, or other queries there, and displays the results in a datasheet. You can also use a select query to group data, and to calculate sums, averages, counts, and other types of totals. Query languages are computer languages used to make queries into databases and information systems.



  1. Query based in BETWEEN operator SELECT * from employee WHERE salary between 40000 to 50000 :






  1. Query based in LIKE condition SELECT * from employee WHERE Name LIKE ‘r%’;







  1. Explaining aggregate functions on select statement, with an example


Aggregate functions are used to compute against a “returned column of numeric data” from your SELECT statement. They basically summarize the results of a particular column of selected data. We are covering these here since they are required by the next topic, “GROUP BY”. Although they are required for the “GROUP BY” clause, these functions can be used without the “GROUP BY” clause. For example:

SELECT AVG(salary)

FROM employee;



Q4. Consider a book is written by a particular author. And you have to explain to some one the relationship that exists between the author and the book. Normally you can draw a diagram and show the relation. These diagrams are called entity-relationship diagram in which book is one entity, author is one entity, and the relationship that exists between the two entities is written. Likewise explain the various notations used to represent the ER diagram.

Answer : Notations used to represent ER diagrams :

There is no standard for representing data objects in ER diagrams. Each modeling methodology uses its own notation. All notational styles represent entities as rectangular boxes and relationships as lines connecting boxes. Each style uses a special set of symbols to represent the cardinality of connection. The symbols used for the basic ER constructs are:

  • Entities are represented by labeled rectangles. The label is the name of the entity. Entity names should be singular nouns.
  • Attributes are represented by Ellipses.



Q.5 Consider any database of your choice (may be simple banking database/forecasting database/project management database). Show the deduction of the tables in your database to the different types of normal forms



Ans : Choosing a proper database  :


The databases chosen is simple forecasting  database.


5 normal forms with respect to the database chosen


Definition: An entity is in the first normal form if it contains no repeating groups.

In 1NF relation the order of tuples (rows) and attributes (



Q.6 Read the following case study thoroughly and answer the following questions:


Laxmi bank is one of the largest private sector banks of India. It has an extensive network of more than 200 branches. It offers banking services to retail as well as corporate clients. The bank faced a challenge in integrating multi-pronged database management system into a centralized system. The IT department of the bank also realized that the computing capabilities of its PCs and servers were not proportionately distributed among all its branches. Each branch had its database management system stored in a traditional way on the disk. The total cost of operating and maintaining the current IT infrastructure was very high and the fundamental shortcomings added to the costs. Moreover, there were also recurrent problems due to the malfunctioning of the currently operational database management system. Therefore, the bank’s top management decided to fix the problem and operationalise a robust database management system. The bank hired an external database technology consulting firm called AKPY Info systems Limited. AKPY divided the entire IT infrastructure of the bank around two verticals. The retail banking vertical and the corporate banking vertical. All the individual database servers from the individual branches were removed. The entire database system was made virtual such that the managers and the staff can access only the required information (related to retail banking or corporate banking) from the respective centralised data centers. There were only two such centralised data centers (one for retail banking and another for corporate banking) that were managed centrally. Staff and managers could access the information through their PCs and laptops. Centralised database management system complemented the security system by bringing in authentication through a unified ID management server. Managers and officers of the bank were able to process half a million transactions per month in real time after the new implementation. There were significant savings in the cost and also in the consumption of power. Now there were no problems with regard to imbalances in the load across various network servers. Due to centralised data management, top management could keep an eye on the functioning of various branches. Hence the cases of fraud and cheating reduced considerably. The bank managers could also process the loan applications in reduced time since the customer’s previous records could be accessed at the click of the button and approval from the higher authorities could be obtained in real time. Moreover the new system also brought in many applications that helped local managers in the decision making process.


  1. List the uses of centralized data management
  2. What steps Laxmi bank need to take if it were to change its centralised database system to a distributed database system in future?


Ans : a. uses of centralized data management :


From the above case study it is concluded that centralized data management has following advantages which has made it more useful than the older system :


  1. Centralised database management system complements the security system by bringing in authentication through a unified ID management server


2  If data is stored and




Ans. b.  Collections of data (e.g. in a database) can be distributed across multiple physical locations. A distributed database can reside on network



Data fragmentation :


Fragmentation is a process of division or the mapping of the tables based on the columns and rows of data into the smallest unit of data. Data fragmentation is a process of division or mapping database where the database is broken down based on the columns and rows are then stored in the site or units of different computers in a data network, allowing for decision-making to data that has been divided. Data that has broken down is still possible to be

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