# Financial Management SBS MBA

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Assignment

Financial Management

SBS MBA

 STUDENT ID

 UNIT TITLE UNIT CODE

 Name (in Full) __________________________________________________________

Total Marks: _______ / 90

Answer all the questions, each question 15 carries

Question: 1

1. Sandersen, Inc., sells minicomputers. The firm’s taxable income is \$1,225,000. Calculate the corporation’s tax liability.

Corporate Tax Rates
 15% \$ 0–\$50,000 25% \$ 50,001–\$75,000 34% \$75,001–\$10,000,000 35% over \$10,000,000 Additional surtax: •5% on income between \$100,000 and \$335,000. •3% on income between \$15,000,000 and \$18,333,333.

Calculating Corporation’s Tax Liability =

1. “Originally, the sole objective of the federal government in taxing income was to generate financing for government expenditures. Although this purpose continues to be important, social and economic objectives have been added.” Substantiate the statement with enough explanations.                                                                                                                        (15 marks)

Originally, the sole objective of the federal government in taxing income was to generate financing for government expenditures. Although this purpose continues to be important, social and economic objectives have been added. For instance, a company may receive possible reductions in taxes if –

1. It undertakes certain
2.

Question: 2

1. Friedman Manufacturing, Inc. has prepared the following information regarding two investments under consideration. Which investment is better, based on risk (as measured by the standard deviation) and return?

 Common Stock A Common Stock B Probability Return Probability Return .20 12% .10 4% .50 18% .30 6% .30 27% .40 10% .20 15%

Expected Rate of Return of A =

0.20 x 12 = 2.4

+ 0.50 x 18 = 9

+ 0.

1. “More can be said about risk, especially as to its nature, when we own more than one asset in our investment portfolio.” Define risk and explain how risk is affected if we diversify our investment by holding a variety of securities?

(15 marks)

Risk involves the chance an investment’s actual return will differ from the expected return. Risk includes the possibility of losing some or all of the original investment. Different versions of risk are usually measured by calculating the standard deviation of the historical returns or average returns of a specific investment.

Risk implies future uncertainty about deviation from expected earnings or expected outcome. Risk measures the uncertainty that an investor is willing to take to realize a gain from an investment.

Risks are of different types and originate from different situations. We have liquidity risk, sovereign risk, insurance risk, business risk, default risk, etc. Various risks originate due to the uncertainty arising out of various factors that influence an investment or a situation.

Diversification is a technique that reduces risk by allocating investments among various financial instruments, industries and other categories. It aims to maximize return by investing in different areas that would each react differently to the same event.

Most investment professionals agree that, although it does not guarantee against loss, diversification is the most important component of reaching long-range financial goals while minimizing risk. Here, we look at why this is true and how to accomplish diversification in your portfolio.

Investors confront two main types of risk when investing:

Undiversifiable – Also known as “systematic” or “market risk,” undiversifiable risk is associated with every company. Causes are things like inflation rates, exchange rates, political instability, war and interest rates. This type of risk is not specific to a particular company or industry, and it cannot be eliminated or reduced through diversification; it is just a risk that investors must accept.

Diversifiable – This risk is also known as “unsystematic risk,” and it is specific to a company, industry, market, economy or country; it can be reduced through diversification. The most common sources of unsystematic risk are business risk and financial risk. Thus, the aim is to invest in various assets so that they will not all be affected the same way by market events.

Why We Should Diversify

Let’s say we have a portfolio of only airline stocks. If it is publicly announced that airline pilots are going on an indefinite strike,and that all flights are canceled, share prices of airline stocks will drop. Your portfolio will experience a noticeable drop in value.

If, however, we counterbalanced the airline industry stocks with a couple of railway stocks, only part of your portfolio would be affected. In fact, there is a good chance that the railway stock prices would climb, as passengers turn to trains as an alternative form of transportation.

But, we could diversify even further because there are many risks that affect both rail and air because each is involved in transportation. An event that reduces any form of travel hurts both types of companies – statisticians would say that rail and air stocks have a strong correlation.

Therefore, to achieve superior diversification, we would want to diversify across the board, not only different types of companies but also different types of industries. The more uncorrelated our stocks are, the better.

It’s also important that we diversify among different asset classes. Different assets – such as bonds and stocks – will not react in the same way to adverse events. A combination of asset classes will reduce our portfolio’s sensitivity to market swings. Generally, the bond and equity markets move in opposite directions, so, if our portfolio is diversified across both areas, unpleasant movements in one will be offset by positive results in another.

There are additional types of diversification, and many synthetic investment products have been created to accommodate investors’ risk tolerance levels. However, these products can be very complicated and are not meant to be created by beginner or small investors. For those who have less investment experience, and do not have the financial backing to enter into hedging activities, bonds are the most popular way to diversify against the stock market.

Unfortunately, even the best analysis of a company and its financial statements cannot guarantee that it won’t be a losing investment. Diversification won’t prevent a loss, but it can reduce the impact of fraud and bad information on your portfolio.

Question 3:

1. J and S Corporation is evaluating its financing requirements for the coming year. The firm has only been in business for 1 year, but its CFO predicts that the firm’s operating expenses, current assets, net fixed assets, and current liabilities will remain at their current proportion of sales.

Last year J and S Corp. had \$15 million in sales with net income of \$1.5 million. The firm anticipates that next year’s sales will reach \$18 million with net income rising to \$3 million. Given its present high rate of growth, the firm retains all its earnings to help defray the cost of new investments.

The firm’s balance sheet for the year just ended is found below:

J and S Corporation
 Balance Sheet 12/31/2000 % of Sales Current assets \$6,000,000 40% Net fixed assets 9,000,000 60% Total \$15,000,000 Liabilities and Owners’ Equity Accounts payable \$3,750,000 25% Long-term debt 4,250,000 NAa Total liabilities \$8,000,000 Common stock 2,000,000 NA Paid-in capital 2,800,000 NA Retained earnings 2,200,000 Common equity 7,000,000 Total \$15,000,000
aNot applicable. This figure does not vary directly with sales and is assumed to remain constant for purposes of making next year’s forecast of financing requirements.

Estimate J and S corp. total financing requirements (i.e., total assets) for 2001 and its net funding requirements (DFN).

Percentage of Sales =  =  = 40%

Forecast (This Year Data x 1.4)

CA                              \$ 8400000

NFA                           \$ 12600000

AP                               \$ 5250000

LTD                     +     \$ 5950000

1. Give a brief summary of forecasting to determine additional (discretionary) funding (financing) needed.                                                                                                        (15 marks)

Question 4:

The balance sheet and income statement for the McDonald’s are as follows.

McDonald’s Corporation 2016 Income Statement (\$ Millions)
 Sales \$11,508 Cost of goods sold 6,537 Gross profits \$ 4,971 Marketing expenses and general and administrative expenses \$ 1,832 Depreciation expense 345 Total operating expenses \$ 2,177 Operating profits \$ 2,794 Interest expenses 387 Earnings before taxes \$ 2,407 Income taxes 765 Net income before preferred stock dividends \$ 1,642 Preferred stock dividends 25 Net income available to common stockholders \$ 1,617

McDonald’s Corporation December 31, 2016 Balance Sheet (\$ Millions) Assets
 Cash \$ 341 Accounts receivables 484 Inventories 71 Prepaid expenses 247 Total current assets \$ 1,143 Gross fixed assets \$20,088 Accumulated depreciation 5,127 Net fixed assets \$14,961 Investments 702 Other assets 1,436 Total assets \$18,242 Liabilities and Equity Liabilities (debt): Short-term notes payable \$ 1,629 Accounts payable 651 Taxes payable 53 Accrued expenses 652 Total current liabilities \$ 2,985 Long-term debt 6,325 Total liabilities \$ 9,310 Equity: Preferred stock \$ 80 Common stock: Par value and paid in capital \$ 708 Retained earnings 11,927 Treasury stock (3,783) Total common equity \$ 8,852 Total equity \$ 8,932 Total liabilities (debt) and equity \$18,242

1. Calculate the following ratios:

 RATIO INDUSTRY NORM Current ratio 0.70 Inventory turnover 90 Average collection period 6.5 days Debt ratio 50% Total asset turnover 1.5 Fixed asset turnover 2 Operating profit margin 21% Return on common equity 15%

Ratios   ->

Current Ratio = = = 0.3829

Inventory Turnover =  =  = 92.07

Average Collection Period =  =  = 0.04 x 365 = 14.4

Debt Ratio =  =  = 1.042

Total Asset Turnover =  = = 0.6308

Fixed Asset Turnover = =  = 0.77

Operating Profit Margin =  =  = 0.24

Return on Equity (ROE) =    =  = 0.269

1. Calculate the future sum of \$5,000 given that it will be held in the bank 5 years at an annual interest rate of 6 percent.

Principal = 5000

Time = 5 years

1. Knutson Products, Inc., is involved in the production of airplane parts and has the following inventory, carrying, and storage costs:
• Orders must be placed in round lots of 250,000 units.
• The carrying cost for 1 unit of inventory is \$ 10
• The ordering cost is \$100 per order.
1. Determine the optimal EOQ level.
2. Determine the average inventory when the safety stock is 2000 units.

(15 marks)

1. Optimum EOQ =

Where, D = Annual Demand

Question 5:

“Some of the financial techniques and strategies are necessary for the efficient operation of an international business. Problems inherent to these firms include multiple currencies, differing legal and political environments, differing economic and capital markets, and internal control problems. The difficulties arising from multiple currencies are stressed here, including the dimensions of foreign exchange risk and strategies for reducing this risk.” Elucidate.                              (15 marks)

International business includes any type of business activity that crosses nationalborders. Though a number of definitions in the business literature can be foundbut no simple or universally accepted definition exists for the term internationalbusiness. At one end of the definitional spectrum, international business isdefined as organization that buys and/or sells goods and services across two or more national boundaries, even if management is located in a single country. Atthe other end of the spectrum,

Question 6:

Explain the financial Axioms(15 marks)

Answer- The risk-return tradeoff is the principle that potential return rises with an increase in risk. Low levels of uncertainty or risk are associated with low potential returns, whereas high levels of uncertainty or risk are associated with high potential returns. According to the risk-return tradeoff, invested money can render higher profits

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# MCA6011 – ADVANCED WEB PROGRAMMING

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ASSIGNMENT

 DRIVE WINTER – 2016 PROGRAM MCA(REVISED FALL 2012) SEMESTER 6 SUBJECT CODE & NAME MCA6011-ADVANCED WEB PROGRAMMING BK ID B1960 CREDITS 4 MARKS 60

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

Question.1. What is XSL-FO? List the steps to create a XSL-FO document.

Answer:XSL-FO (XSL Formatting Objects) is a markup language for XML document formatting that is most often used to generate PDF files. XSL-FO is part of XSL (Extensible Stylesheet Language), a set of W3C technologies designed for the transformation and formatting of XML data. The other parts of XSL are XSLT and XPath. Version 1.1 of XSL-FO was published in 2006.

Question.2. What is difference between ordered list and definition list?

Answer:Lists are very important to any document as they allow you to make your key points stand out from the rest of the text. HTML supports three lists:

• unordered (bulleted)
• ordered (numbered)

Question.3. Explain comparison between XML and Relational database.

Answer:When you design your databases, you need to decide whether your data is better suited to the XML model or the relational model. Your design can also take advantage of the hybrid nature of a DB2® database, that is, the ability to support both relational and XML data in a single database.

While this discussion explains some of the main differences between the models and the factors that apply to each, there are numerous factors that can

Question.4. Differentiate between Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Data Retrieval with example.

Answer:When a technician or server operator needs to create copies of data, be it over a SAN, LAN or WAN, there are two main methods of doing this. Synchronous and asynchronous replication each have their own benefits and drawbacks. Learn more about these two methods of copying data, so you can choose the right option for your needs.

Synchronous Replication: Essentially,

Question.5. Explain any five new features of HTML5.

Answer:The character set for HTML 5 is streamlined as well. It uses UTF-8 and you define it with just one meta tag:

<meta charset=”UTF-8″>

1. HTML 5 New Structure: HTML 5 recognizes that Web pages have a structure, just like books have a structure or other XML documents. In general, Web pages have navigation, body content, and sidebar content plus headers, footers, and other

Question.6. Explain the following:

1. a) Window event attributes.

Answer:Window Event Attributes were set off/happens for the window.

These events should be placed inside the <body>.

1. b) Form event attributes.

Answer:Events triggered by actions inside a HTML form (applies to almost all HTML elements, but is most used in form elements):

 Attribute Value Description

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# Case Study Project – Entrepreneurship Management

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Entrepreneurship Management

Question.1. Discuss the leadership qualities of a Senior manager, his career as a manager with different organizations, detailing his 25-year tenure at a Nava Ratana Company. Also discuss some of the leadership qualities, his role in changing the fortunes of the department/organization/unit he managed. Hallmark the leadership and explain how he motivated his staff members; how he maintained discipline in the office; how he provided the required support to the key staff members in improving performance; how he reared young professional staff members and turned them into trained professionals; and how his decisions helped them at several crucial junctures.

Answer:One of the most important factors found within top companies that last is their impressive leadership. Look at most of the well-established multinationals across the globe and you’ll find that their CEOs, board members, and other executive managers are respected within the industry (and often outside it too) for their abilities.

What is it exactly, though, that makes a successful manager? If you’re studying a higher degree in organizational leadership or similar, during your career you’ll be regularly asking yourself that question as you help companies lead their way into bigger profits and more innovative practices.

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# Case Study Project – Effective Communication as a Motivator

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Case Study Project

Total Marks: 100

Effective Communication as a Motivator

BACKGROUND:

One common complaint employee’s voice about supervisors is inconsistent messages – meaning one supervisor tells them one thing and another tells them something different. Imagine you are the supervisor/manager for each of the employees described below. As you read their case, give consideration to how you might help communicate with the employee to remedy the conflict. Answer the critical thinking questions at the end of the case.

THE CASE:

Barry is a 27-year old who is a foodservice manager at a casual dining restaurant. Barry is responsible for supervising and managing all employees in the back of the house. Employees working in the back of the house range in age from 16 years old to 55 years old. In addition, the employees come from diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds.  For many, English is not their primary language.

Barry is ServSafe® certified and tries his best to keep up with food safety issues in the kitchen but he admits it’s not easy. Employees receive “on the job training” about food safety basics (for example, appropriate hygiene and hand washing, time/temperature, and cleaning and sanitizing). But with high turnover of employees, training is often rushed and some new employees are put right into the job without training if it is a busy day.  Eventually, most employees get some kind of food safety training. The owners of the restaurant are supportive of Barry in his food safety efforts because they know if a food safety outbreak were ever linked to their restaurant; it would likely put them out of business. Still, the owners note there are additional costs for training and making sure food is handled safely.

One day Barry comes to work and is rather upset even before he steps into the restaurant. Things haven’t been going well at home and he was lucky to rummage through some of the dirty laundry and find a relatively clean outfit to wear for work. He admits he needs a haircut and a good hand scrubbing, especially after working on his car last evening. When he walks into the kitchen he notices several trays of uncooked meat sitting out in the kitchen area. It appears these have been sitting at room temperature for quite some time. Barry is frustrated and doesn’t know what to do. He feels like he is beating his head against a brick wall when it comes to getting employees to practice food safety.

Barry has taken many efforts to get employees to be safe in how they handle food. He has huge signs posted all over the kitchen with these words: KEEP HOT FOOD HOT AND COLD FOOD COLD and WASH YOUR HANDS ALWAYS AND OFTEN. All employees are given a thermometer when they start so that they can temp food. Hand sinks, soap, and paper towels are available for employees so that they are encouraged to wash their hands frequently.

Answer all the Questions, total carries 50 marks.

Question.1.         What are the communication challenges and barriers Barry faces?

1. Language barriers: Most of the employees weren’t Fuent in English which led to verbal communication a challenge at times.
2. Generational (age) barriers :The generation gap difference is another challenge Barry was facing as each age group has a different preferred method of communication. While the younger generation might prefer to receive text messages as their preferred way of communication, older employees may not ²nd this method of communication acceptable. Work values and attitudes may also affect communication between younger and older employees.
3. Cultural and ethnic barriers: Cultural differences in

Question.2.         What solutions might Barry consider in addressing each of these challenges and barriers?

Answer:Barry might consider the following solutions to the identi²ed challenges and barriers:

1. A) Language barriers: Well this can be addressed by posting signs in employees’ primary language. Putting signage with visuals, not just words.
2. B) Generational (age) barriers: having employees in various age categories can pose a unique set of challenges. While the younger generation is used to texting and using shortened messaging, their vocabulary may not be consistent with that of older employees. Work values and attitudes may also affect communication between younger and older employees.
3. C) Cultural and ethnic barriers: Barry may need to

Question.3.         What Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) would be helpful for Barry to implement and enforce?

Answer:The Business Dictionary states that a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) must be a written document that can be used as guidance any time a specific task or project is undertaken. In other word, SOP is explaining how policy is implemented to the work place. SOP may be written as a policy or it may also write as document. An effective SOP can be communicate with who perform the ask, what the materials are needed to complete the task, where is the task should take place, when should the task be perform and how the person can enforce the task. In this case study, SOP can identify who, what, where, when and how of food service practices for employees. There are five elements that should include in SOP, which are

Question.4.         What are some ways Barry might use effective communication as a motivator for employees to follow safe food handling practices?

Answer:Communicating openly with your employees is a reliable way to motivate them and improve office morale. If you feel like you already communicate adequately with your employees, think again — your definitions of effective communication may differ from those of your employees. By allowing your employees to determine the boundaries of communication as much as you do, you give them a sense of power, belonging, camaraderie and responsibility that are crucial to fostering a sense of motivation. When the lines of communication are

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# Subject : Marketing Management

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AEREN FOUNDATION’S                                                           Maharashtra Govt. Reg. No.: F-11724

Name : UMER MUQUTHER S A                                                                                                       Marks : 80

Course : Specialisation

Subject : Marketing Management

Question.1. Explain the steps involved in prospecting

(1) formulating prospect definitions,

(2) searching out potential accounts

(3) qualifying prospects and determining probable requirements, and

(4) relating company products to each

Question.2. What are the steps involved in setting up a Sales organization. Explain them.

Answer:You can organize a sales force in a number of ways including by region, product line, market sector or customer size. The number of people on your sales team, the size and complexity of your product range, the geographical spread of your business and the type of customers you deal with influence the structure you choose.

1. Align your sales organization with your

Question.3. Write short notes on :

(a) Sales management.

Answer:Sales management is a business discipline which is focused on the practical application of sales techniques and the management of a firm’s sales operations. It is an important business function as net sales through the sale of products and services and resulting profit drive most commercial business. These are also typically the goals and performance indicators of sales management.

(b) Sales Organizations.

Answer:In committee sales organization the committee is never the sole basis for organizing a sales department. It is a method organizing the executive group for planning and policy formulation while leaving actual operations, including implementation of plans and policies, to individual executives.

Thus, many firms have a sales training committee (comprised of the general sales manger, his or her assistants, the sale training manager, and perhaps representative divisional or regional sales mangers) that meets periodically to draft

(c) Sales manager.

Answer:A sales manager is someone who is responsible for leading and guiding a team of sales people in an organization. They set sales goals & quotas, build a sales plan, analyze data, assign sales training and sales territories, mentor the members of his/her sales team and are involved in the hiring and firing process.

What does a Sales Manager do?

Question.4. Define salesmanship. Enumerate functions of salesman?

Answer:“The personal selling” and “salesmanship” are often used interchangeably, but there is an important difference. Personal selling is the broader concept. Salesmanship may or may not be an important part of personal selling and it is never ‘all of it. Along with other key marketing elements, such as pricing, advertising, product development and research, marketing channels and physical distribution, the personal selling is a means through which marketing programmes are implemented.

The broad purpose of marketing is to bring a firm’s products into contact with markets and to effect profitable exchanges of products for money. The purpose of personal selling is to bring the right products into contact with the right customers, and make

Question.5. Describe at length sales related marketing policies.

Answer:A sales person’s professional life is characterized by various highs and lows. At times he may clinch a deal and close a sale, at other times he may have to face the customer’s rejection. Thus, the life of a salesperson is certainly not an easy one. What differentiates a successful company from a not-so-successful one is its sales force. The sales force of a company comprises the sales managers and the sales personnel. Both have distinct roles to play and responsibilities to fulfill toward the achievement of the sales objectives of the organization.

The sales manager who occupies a middle-level position in an organization satisfies the demands and expectations of not only those above him and those whom he is

Question.6. How motivation place an important role in the Sales management. Explain the different theories involved in this.

Answer:Motivation is one of the forces that lead to performance. Motivation is defined as the desire to achieve a goal or a certain performance level, leading to goal-directed behavior. When we refer to someone as being motivated, we mean that the person is trying hard to accomplish a certain task. Motivation is clearly important if someone is to perform well; however, it is not sufficient. Ability—or having the skills and knowledge required to perform the job—is also important and is sometimes the key determinant of effectiveness. Finally, environmental factors such as having the resources, information, and support one needs to perform well are critical to determine performance. At different times, one of these three factors may be the key to high performance. For example, for an employee sweeping the floor, motivation may be the most

Question.7. What are the sources of recruitment of salesman?

Answer:Right salesmen can help company achieve marketing objectives. Recruitment and selection are two important decisions in sales force management that concern with ensuring the right type (right qualities, right qualifications, and right experience) of sales personnel.

Problem of recruitment and selection arises when:

Question.8. Explain briefly the law relating to rights of buyers and sellers?

In the absence of a contract to the contrary, the buyer and the seller of immovable property respectively are subject to the liabilities, and have the rights, mentioned in the rules next following or such of them as are applicable to the property sold:

(1) The seller is bound-

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# Subject :Sales Management

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AEREN FOUNDATION’S                                                           Maharashtra Govt. Reg. No.: F-11724

Name : UMER MUQUTHER S A                                                                                                       Marks : 80

Course : Specialisation

Subject :Sales Management

Case 1

(20 Marks)

Auckland Engineering plc Jim Withey, sales manager for Auckland Engineering plc, a wellestablished engineering company based in the Midlands, had been contemplating the memo he had received two days earlier from his newly appointed marketing director.

Memo To: J Withey, sales manager From: D C Duncan, marketing director Date: 16 January 2008 Subject: Preparation of annual marketing plan You will recall that, at our series of preliminary meetings to discuss future marketing plans for the company, I suggested that I was unhappy with the seemingly haphazard approach to planning.

Accordingly, you will recall it was agreed between departmental heads that each would undertake to prepare a formal input to next month’s planning meeting. At this stage, I am not seeking detailed plans for each product market, rather I am concerned that you give some thought to how your department can contribute to the planning process. Being new to the company and its product/markets, I am not entirely up to date on what has been happening to the market for our products, although as we all know our market share at 3.5 per cent is down on last year. I would particularly like to know what information ‘our department could contribute to the analysis of the situation.

To help you in your own analysis I have summarized below what I feel came out of our first planning meetings.

• Business definition. It was agreed that the business needs redefining in customer terms. An appropriate definition for our company would he as follows: ‘Solutions to engine component design and manufacturing problems.’
• Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, i.e. SWOT analysis. The main strengths of our company are as follows.

— We have excellent customer awareness and an image of reliability and quality.

— Our sales force is technically well qualified.

— Our manufacturing flexibility is second to none. We can respond quickly and effectively to individual customer needs. Our main weaknesses are as follows.

— Our prices are approximately 10 per cent above the industry average.

3

— We are spending a far higher proportion of our turnover on advertising than some of our main competitors.

— Our sales force is not skilled in generating new leads. Major opportunities are as follows.

— Some of our major competitors are having difficulty keeping their customers because of quality and delivery problems. Buyers in the industry seem particularly prone to switching their suppliers.

— Recent legislation in the industry means that our research and development programme on the new TDIX component with its emphasis on lower exhaust emission levels, should prove advantageous.

— Recent and forecast trends in the exchange rate should help our export marketing efforts. Major threats are shown below.

— Our largest customer is threatening to switch to another supplier because of our higher average prices.

— Apart from the TDIX programmer, we have not been keeping pace with the rapid technological change in the industry.

— Some of our major export markets are threatened by the possibility of import restrictions.

• Objectives. Financial.To increase our return on capital employed by 5 per cent after taxes.

— Our net profit in the forthcoming year to be £2.0 million. Marketing.

— Sales revenue to be increased to £18 million in the forthcoming year.

• Marketing strategy. Target markets.

— Major manufacturers of diesel engines worldwide. Positioning.Highest engineering quality and aftersales service in the supply of specialist lowvolume diesel engine components.

I would of course welcome your comments on my analysis of the situation, together with ‘our views on the appropriateness of the objectives I have set. In addition, for the next meeting, I suggest that as sales manager you give some thought as to where the relative emphasis should be placed in our promotional effort. As I have already mentioned in my summary of our preliminary meetings, we seem to be spending an excessive amount on advertising compared with our competitors. Perhaps you could appraise me of your thoughts on this, as I understand that you were instrumental in raising our advertising budget from 3 per cent to 5 per cent of our turnover last year. As you are well aware, from a limited budget we must decide where to place the relative emphasis in our promotional mix. Perhaps, you would indicate what you feel are the major considerations in this decision.

Question.1. Give a brief outline of the ways in which you as sales manager can contribute to the marketing planning process atAuckland Engineering.

Answer:The basic methodology of business planning is identifying causes and effects, according to your relevant business requirements (financials and ethics) and strategic drivers (what we are actually aiming to achieve).

Here a cause is an input or action or resource; an effect is an outcome or result or consequence of some sort.

We want to achieve xyz effect (for example a given return on investment, or a certain sales level or market share, whatever) – so what should we plan to cause this to happen?

Question.2. Looking at Mr. Duncan’s analysis of your previous meetings, what issues/problems do you see which are ofparticular relevance to the activities of the sales force?

Answer:If a company has workers who understand what round means, and a customer who agrees, the problems the company may have had satisfying the customer will disappear.

Let’s look at another example where operational definitions improve understanding within the company. In this example we measure a variable (sales), so we use the second type of operational definition.

Question.3. How would you respond to Mr. Duncan’s comments on the promotional mix and, in particular, to his commentsabout the level of advertising expenditure?

Answer:Product promotion is critical for every business due to the lasting impact promotion has on the clients. The promotion mix is essentially what promoting entails as well as how promoting is effectively done. It comprises personal selling, advertising, public relations, sales promotion, and direct marketing. Using the right blend of the promotional mix ensures that a business will continue gaining customers and achieving success in both the short and long run.

1. Personal Selling

Question.4. What is the point in conducting a SWOT analysis?

Answer:Conducting a SWOT analysis of your business is a lot more fun than it sounds. It won’t take much time, and doing it forces you to think about your business in a whole new way.

The point of a SWOT analysis is to help you develop a strong business strategy by making sure you’ve considered all of your business’s strengths and weaknesses, as well as the opportunities and threats it faces in the marketplace.

Case 2

(20 Marks)

Swish flow Ltd.—Hiring Salespeople “Why two out of five salespersons have resigned within six months of joining the company?” asked marketing director to the sales manager, Sunil Kumar, of Swish flow Ltd. “I think, there is something wrong with our staffing process,” responded Sunil Kumar, without knowing the real reasons for the turnover of salespeople. Swish flow Ltd started manufacturing and marketing consumer durables like fans and water purifiers for household consumers and commercial firms in 1993. The sales and marketing office was located in Mumbai, the commercial capital of India. Swish flow was a newly established company and for its first year of operations, the company decided to recruit five salespersons to cover major metros and cities of Maharashtra. The staffing process included the sales manager deciding the job qualifications of salespersons based on what he learnt in the MBA programmer. The administration manager was asked to place the advertisement in the local newspapers. The resumes of applicants were forwarded to Sunil Kumar, who screened the same and sent interview calls to about ten applicants. The interviews were conducted by Sunil Kumar and the marketing director and the selected candidates were given the appointment letters. Some of the candidates had a problem of finding suitable residence, but the company policy did nor provide any consideration for the same. Sunil Kumar conducted oneweek training programmer and generally guided the new Salespersons, who reported to him directly. There was a delay in the receipt of the fans front the factory, located at Baroda in Gujarat. During this period of three months, Sunil Kumar was asked to conduct market surveys and look after advertising function of the entire group. He asked the salespersons to collect market information on various other products like water purifiers, power tillers, and so on in which the group was interested to diversify. During this period, two salespersons suddenly stopped coming to work, after collecting their salaries of the previous working month.

Question.1. What improvements do you suggest in the staffing process followed by the company?

Answer:It has been debated many times, but the question of whether recruitment is best done with internal or external resources can only be answered at an organizational level, based upon a cost-benefit analysis.

When doing this analysis, consider which method of recruitment scores higher on the following metrics:

• Quality of hire

Question.2. Was Sunil Kumar right in getting market surveys done by the new salespersons?

Answer:Companies that hire salespeople would be wise to increase both the length and quality of training to show them how to sell effectively, according to a 2012 Salesperson Onboarding Survey that polled more than 500 sales management executives and business leaders. A whopping eight out 10 respondents are not satisfied with how long it takes their new salespeople to get up to speed.

Case 3

(20 Marks)

Plastic Products Ltd Plastic Products Ltd is a company that produces and markets plastic cups, teaspoons, knives and forks for the catering industry. The company was established in 1974 in response to the changes taking place in the catering industry. The growth of the fastfood sector of the market was seen as an opportunity to provide disposable eating utensils which would save on manpower and allow the speedy provision of utensils for fast customer flow. In addition, Plastic Products has benefited from the growth in supermarkets and sells consumer packs’ through four of the large supermarket groups. The expansion of sales and outlets has led Jim Spencer, the sales manager, to recommend to Bill Preedy, the general manager, that the present sales force of two regional representatives he increased to four. Spencer believes that the new recruits should have experience of selling fastmoving consumer goods since essentially that is what his products are. Preedy believes that the new recruits should he familiar with plastic products since that is what they are selling. He favors recruiting from within the plastics industry, since such people are familiar with the supply, production and properties of plastic and are likely to talk the same language as other people working at the firm.

Question.1. What general factors should be taken into account when recruiting salesmen?

Answer:Every small business owner knows her company’s productivity and profitability depend on the quality of workers she employs. Recruiting the right employees is a great responsibility that can’t be taken too seriously. Consider certain factors when recruiting your ideal staff members. Look for employees with a balanced combination of people and work skills who can work well with you, other employees and customers.

Education: The education background of your potential employee is important. Check for a degree or completion of classes that complement your

Question.2. Do you agree with Spencer or Preedy or neither?

Answer:The simple answer is that i will agree to neither of them.

Spencer, who throughout her marriage had accommodated herself to her husband, as well as suffering the flagrancriesof two not very amenable daughters, had doubtless enjoyed the years with Preedy, who had accommodated herself entirely to her.

Question.3. Distinguish between the job description and the personnel specification. For an industry of your choice, write asuitable job description and personnel specification for a salesperson.

Answer:job description vsspecificationIn our earlier article, we discussed the difference between Job Analysis and Job Description. Job Description is derived from Job Analysis, in the same way, Job Specification is the output of Job Description. Job Description is a statement which explains the essential needs of a job. On the other hand, Job Specification is a statement which states the least qualifications, required in the job holder for the performance of a particular job.

Question.4. Discuss the role of psychological testing in the selection process for salespeople.

Answer:Hiring and training new employees can be an expensive process. To help keep turnover to a minimum, some companies employ psychological testing to ensure that potential employees are suitable before hiring them. Psychological tests, however, are not only used during the hiring process. Some companies use these tests to monitor the continued suitability of employees who have been on the job for some time.

Case 4

(20 Marks)

1. G. Engineering Company Achieving Quotas Ashok Desai was transferred from western region, where he worked as area sales manager of CQ Engineering Company, to eastern region as regional marketing manager —industries. He was told by the company’s general manager (Sales) that he was transferred from western region to eastern region to set things right, as eastern region was not performing well on sales and profits. Ashok’s main responsibilities were to manage effectively 11 sales engineers and achieve the sales volume and contribution (to profits) quotas. For Ashok, not only the industrial customers but also the sales engineers were new.

The sales engineers were compensated based on straight salary and perquisites like house rent allowance and medical reimbursement. There was no incentive scheme. The territory of eastern region consisted of states of West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, and Orissa. Ashok felt that the sales engineers were not covering the market adequately and were not following any system of routing and scheduling. He also thought that sales people were spending more time in travelling and less time in selling activities. After talking to sales engineers individually, he got an impression that most of them were not motivated, as they were not given adequate freedom of operations and recognition whenever they got good orders. Ashok thought that there was a good scope of applying what he had learnt in the management institute and achieve superior results as expected by the general manager (Sales).

Question.1. If you were Ashok, what would you do to achieve the sales volume and contribution quotas?

Answer:The variable compensation portion of your sales compensation plan can be made up of three components:  commissions, bonuses and performance awards.  Commissions are earnings tied to sales.  The more sales your sales representative makes, the more commissions the sales representative earns.  Bonuses are earnings tied to pre-defined goals.  You may pay bonuses for surpassing quota, achieving target product levels or

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# Subject : Marketing Management

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AEREN FOUNDATION’S                                                           Maharashtra Govt. Reg. No.: F-11724

Name : UMER MUQUTHER S A                                                                                                       Marks : 80

Course : Specialisation

Subject : Marketing Management

Question. 1. Explain Forms of Direct Marketing.

Answer:Direct marketing occurs when the “producer” connects with the end user. The end user may be a consumer or a business.

Direct marketing applies to product and service-oriented businesses, and to nonprofit organizations. In all situations, there is no intermediary involved.

Question.2. What do you mean by the term product Life Cycle (PLC) Explain the stages of PLC. Find out in which stage of PLC are the Following product in India, and suggest suitable marketing strategies for each

1. a) Tooth Powder
2. b) Microwave Ovens
3. b) Bicycles
4. d) VCRs.

Answer:A new product passes through set of stages known as product life cycle. Product life cycle  applies to both brand and category of products. Its time period vary from product to product. Modern product life cycles are becoming shorter and shorter as products in mature stages are being renewed by market segmentation and  product differentiation.

Companies always attempt to maximize the

Question.3. Discuss the role & importance of physical distribution in the consumer products marketing.

Answer:The physical distribution arrangement or system designed to move the goods from producers and manufacturers to the users has a definite role. That is why; all wise business firms have forged ahead with investment of good deal of time, treasure and talent in physical distribution system improvements to get best to others.

It provides a new orientation for marketing. It gives distribution factors the importance they deserve in marketing and business policies, plans and decisions.

Question.5. What are Current trends in packaging?

Answer:Consumers are creatures of sensation. Packaging design is all about engaging their sense of touch and sight to influence buying habits. They’re also becoming increasingly sophisticated and discerning buyers. As a result, the trend in packaging design is toward meeting their demands for better designed and environmentally responsible products. Fortunately our creativity, combined with today’s technology, allows us to blend new materials and processes that push the design envelope while influencing consumer behaviour.

Question.6. Give the steps in launching a new product. Also give various methods of test marketing a new Product.

Answer:Developing a new product shouldn’t feel like you’re fighting in the dark. There’s an easier way. What you need is a structured road-map that gives your business a clear path to follow.

Actually developing the tangible product or service is only a small part of the new product development process, which includes the complete journey from generating the initial idea to bringing the product to market.

By setting out the steps involved, and sticking to them, your product development will become a more focused and flexible approach that can be

Question.7. Explain Product Life Cycle in detail .How do marketing strategies change as product moves. through various stages of Life cycle

Answer:A new product progresses through a sequence of stages from introduction to growth, maturity, and decline. This sequence is known as the product life cycle and is associated with changes in the marketing situation, thus impacting the marketing strategy and the marketing mix.

The product revenue and profits can be plotted as a function of the life-cycle stages as shown in the graph below:

Introduction Stage: In the introduction stage, the firm seeks to build product awareness and develop a market for the product. The impact on the marketing mix is as follows:

• Product branding and quality level is established, and intellectual property protection such as patents and trademarks are obtained.
• Pricing may be low penetration pricing to build market share rapidly, or high skim pricing to recover development costs.
• Distribution is selective until consumers show acceptance of the product.
• Promotion is aimed at innovators and early adopters. Marketing communications seeks to build product awareness and to educate potential consumers about the product.

Growth Stage: In the growth stage, the firm seeks to build brand preference and increase market share.

• Product quality is maintained and additional features and support services may be added.
• Pricing is maintained as the firm enjoys increasing demand with little competition.
• Distribution channels are added as demand increases and customers accept the product.
• Promotion is aimed at a broader audience.

Maturity Stage: At maturity, the strong growth in sales diminishes. Competition may appear with similar products. The primary objective at this point is to defend market share while maximizing profit.

• Product features may be enhanced to differentiate the product from that of competitors.
• Pricing may be lower because of the new competition.
• Distribution becomes more intensive and incentives may be offered to encourage preference over competing products.
• Promotion emphasizes product differentiation.

Decline Stage: As sales decline, the firm has several options:

• Maintain the product, possibly rejuvenating it by adding new features and finding new uses.
• Harvest the product – reduce costs and continue to offer it, possibly to a loyal niche segment.
• Discontinue the product, liquidating remaining inventory or selling it to another firm that is willing to continue the product.

Question.8. How will you alter the marketing mix –intensity &composition ,as a product is entering the maturity stage in the lifecycle? How again the marketing mix will have to be modified ,when the same product ,later on, starts showing sales – decline?

Answer:The marketing mix decisions in the decline phase will depend on the selected strategy. For example, the product may be changed if it is being rejuvenated, or left unchanged if it is being harvested or liquidated. The price may be maintained if the product is harvested, or reduced drastically if liquidated.

A product life cycle is the typical stages a product

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# Subject : Marketing Management

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AEREN FOUNDATION’S                                                           Maharashtra Govt. Reg. No.: F-11724

Name : UMER MUQUTHER S A                                                                                                       Marks : 80

Course : Specialisation

Subject : Marketing Management

Question. 1. Explain Psychological Pricing.

Answer:Psychological pricing (also price ending, charm pricing) is a pricing/marketing strategy based on the theory that certain prices have a psychological impact. Retail prices are often expressed as “odd prices”: a little less than a round number, e.g. \$19.99 or £2.98. There’s evidence that consumers tend to perceive “odd prices” as being significantly lower than they actually are, tending to round to the next lowest monetary unit. Thus, prices such as \$1.99 are associated with spending \$1 rather than \$2. The theory that drives this is that lower pricing such as this institutes greater demand than if consumers were perfectly rational.

Question.2. What is Inventory Management

Answer:Inventory management or Stock management is a discipline primarily about specifying the shape and placement of stocked goods. It is required at different locations within a facility or within many locations of a supply network to precede the regular and planned course of production and stock of materials.

The concept of inventory, stock or work-in-

Question.3. Define the term Marketing Mix. Explain the significance of appropriate marketing mix in the present competitiveenvironment. Cite examples to support your answer.

Answer:Marketing strategy has the fundamental goal of increasing sales and achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. Marketing strategy includes all basic, short-term, and long-term activities in the field of marketing that deal with the analysis of the strategic initial situation of a company and the formulation, evaluation and selection of market-oriented strategies and therefore contribute to the goals of the company and its marketing objectives.

The distinction between “strategic” and “

Question.4. Present the factors that influence the pricing strategy of an organization .Which among them are non – controllable ?Why?

Answer:An enormous number of factors affect pricing decisions. A marketing manager should identify and study the relevant factors affecting the pricing. Some factors are internal to organisation and, hence, controllable while other factors are external or environmental and are uncontrollable.

Factors are also classified in terms of competition-related factors, market-related factors, product- related factors, and so forth. However, we will consider internal and external factors affecting pricing decisions. Due to these factors, price is set high or low, fixed or variable, and equal or discriminative. Figure 2 shows a list of internal and

Question.5. Advertisement expenses are usually wasteful, with no guarantee of enhanced sales or higher loyalty from among thetarget audience” .Do you agree with this statement ?Present your view – point.

Answer:In a competitive economy, companies seek to persuade consumers to buy their products or to avail their services. It is impractical to think that companies should only stock their warehouses and wait for consumers to come knocking on their doors. If this is what businesses did, there would be an economic waste in terms of products being produced but not being bought.

The critics of advertising attack the form of

Question.6. What is Price sensitivity?

Answer:Price sensitivity is the degree to which the price of a product affects consumers’ purchasing behaviors. In economics, price sensitivity is commonly measured using the price elasticity of demand. For example, some consumers are not willing to pay even a few extra cents per gallon for gasoline, especially if a lower-priced station is nearby.

The price sensitivity of a product varies with the level of importance consumers place on price relative to other purchasing criteria. For example, customers seeking top quality goods are typically less price sensitive than bargain hunters.

Elasticity of Demand

Question.7. What do you mean by the term Physical Distribution? Explain briefly the nature & importation in the sphere ofphysical distribution

Answer:Physical distribution is the group of activities associated with the supply of finished product from the production line to the consumers. The physical distribution considers many sales distribution channels, such as wholesale and retail, and includes critical decision areas like customer service, inventory, materials, packaging, order processing, and transportation and logistics. You often will hear these processes be referred to as

Question.8.R.K.Industries Ltd., intends to launch a new folding exercise cycle in Indian market. As a marketing manager whichsteps would you like to take while launching this product? How will you conduct the test marketing for this product.Make necessary Assumptions and justify your answer.

Answer:In some cases, the product will be a direct revenue generator, and in other cases, the product will be a new platform for B2B business transactions.

In the first scenario – where the product is intended to be a direct revenue generator – the software needs to be positioned for sale. In the second scenario, rapid user adoption and acceptance is the goal. In either case, however, a well planned

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AEREN FOUNDATION’S                                                           Maharashtra Govt. Reg. No.: F-11724

Name :LeemaNoori                                                                                                            Marks : 80

Course :Bachelors in Management Studies (BMS)

Question.1. How cultural factors do influences international business? (10 marks)

Answer:International business deals not only cross borders, they also cross cultures. Culture profoundly influences how people think, communicate, and behave. It also affects the kinds of transactions they make and the way they negotiate them. Differences in culture between business executives—for example, between a Chinese public sector plant manager in Shanghai and a Canadian division head of a family company

Question.2. What are the role and functions of WTO in international relations? (10 marks)

Answer:function of wtoThe World Trade Organization (WTO) is an organization with the intention of liberalizing and supervising international trade. The organization deals with trade regulation between countries. The functions of the World Trade Organization (WTO) was formed officially on the first of January in 1995 under the Marrakesh Agreement with goals of liberalizing and supervising international trading among countries participating. A framework is provided by the WTO to negotiate and formalize agreements of

Question.3. Explain public sector undertaking of export promotions. (10 marks)

Answer:Since 1948, when for the first time the importance of the public sector in the Indian economy was recognized, the public sector has experienced a phenomenal growth both in terms of number and volume of investment. The Government has made sustained efforts to break the vicious circle of poverty and undevelopment by setting up public sector enterprises or by nationalizing certain key industries. The most recent instances are the

Question.4. What is DDU? (10 marks)

Answer:DDU was not included in the 2010 publication of the International Chamber of Commerce’s Incoterms, however it is still used in international trade parlance. The official term that best describes the function of DDU is now Delivery At Place or (DAP).

DDU is an international trade where the seller is responsible for making a safe delivery of goods to a named destination, paying all transportation expenses and assuming all risks during transportation except for the duty once it arrives to port. When the goods

Question.5. Describe ten strategic policies for IT industry. (10 marks)

Answer:The industrial policy of a country, sometimes denoted IP, is its official strategic effort to encourage the development and growth of part or all of the manufacturing sector as well as other sectors of the economy. The government takes measures “aimed at improving the competitiveness and capabilities of domestic firms and promoting structural transformation.” A country’s infrastructure (transportation, telecommunications and energy

Question.6. How would you categorise International Business Risk ? (10 marks)

Answer:Businesses face all kinds of risks, some of which can cause serious loss of profits or even bankruptcy. But while all large companies have extensive “risk management” departments, smaller businesses tend not to look at the issue in such a systematic way.

So in this four-part series of tutorials, you’ll learn the basics of

Question.7. What are the factors that affect international pricing ? (10 marks)

Answer:Pricing decisions are complex in international marketing. A firm may have to follow different pricing strategies in different markets. Whatever might be the strategy followed, pricing has to reflect the proper value in the eyes of the consumer. Pricing is an important strategic and tactical competitive weapon that can be used by a firm in international marketing.

Question.8. How does IHRM affect the staffing policy of a company ? (10 marks)

Answer:Small businesses are expanding into international markets due to improvements in technology and increasing globalization. This expansion includes setting up production facilities and sales offices abroad. To reduce the perceived risk in these new ventures, companies may be tempted to adopt an ethnocentric approach to their HR

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# Subject :Financial and Cost Accounting

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AEREN FOUNDATION’S                                                           Maharashtra Govt. Reg. No.: F-11724

Name :LeemaNoori                                                                                                            Marks : 80

Course :Bachelors in Management Studies (BMS)

Subject :Financial and Cost Accounting

Question.1. State the objectives of cost accounting briefly explain the advantages of cost accounting. (10 marks)

Answer:Cost accounting is the classifying, recording and appropriate allocation of expenditure for the determination of the costs of products or services, and for the presentation of suitably arranged data for purposes of control and guidance of management. It includes the ascertainment of the cost of every order, job, contract, process, service or unit as may be appropriate. It deals with the cost of production, selling and distribution.

Question.2. Define “Costing”, “Cost” and “Cost Accountancy”. Distinguish between cost accounting and financial accounting. (10 marks)

Answer:Cost, costing, cost accounting and cost accountancy are normally used interchangeably but they are not synonyms of each other. The meaning of these terms is related and similar but there are differences. Cost is a sacrificed resource to obtain something, costing is a process of determining costs, cost accounting is a technique to assist management in establishing various budgets, standards, etc and cost accountancy is the practice

Question.3. What one the limitations of financial accounting? How do you overcome item in cost accounting? (10 marks)

Answer:Net effect of transactions are recorded in financial accounting which has happened in past. These accounts is just postmortem of all events of business in past .These record does not help for future planning and other managerial decisions. Financial accounting shows the profitability of business but it is failure to tell that is it good or bad. Financial accounting is also failure to know the reasons of low profitability position.

1. Financial accounting deals with overall profitability:

Question.5. What are the objectives of cost accounting and what is the relation with Management accounting department? (10 marks)

Answer:Cost accounting is distinct and separate from general financial accounting, which is regulated by generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and is responsible for creating financial statements. Instead, cost accounting aims to report, analyze and lead to the improvement of inter-business cost control and efficiency. Cost accounting is a system of operational analysis for management.

The Scope and Nature of Cost Accounting

Question.6. Explain the significance of cost accounting in a manufacturing company. (10 marks)

Answer:Manufacturing cost accounting encompasses several tasks that impact production operations and the valuation of inventory. These activities can significantly boost the profits of a business, as well as bring it into compliance with the applicable accounting standards. The following are all elements of manufacturing cost accounting:

• Inventory valuation. This is the fully loaded cost of inventory at the end of an accounting period, which is required under various

Question.7. Explain the importance of the Marginal cost technique in managerial decision making? (10 marks)

Answer:Marginal costing is very helpful in managerial decision making. Management’s production and cost and sales decisions may be easily affected from marginal costing. That is the reason, it is the part of cost control method of costing accounting. Before explaining the application of marginal costing in managerial decision making, we are providing little introduction to those who are new for understanding this important concept.

Question.8. Explain the term Convention of materiality. (10 marks)

Answer:The materiality concept is the principle in accounting that trivial matters are to be disregarded, and all important matters are to be disclosed. Items that are large enough to matter are material items.

United States GAAP, for instance, states that items are material if “they could … influence the economic decisions of [financial statement] users….” In other words, materiality errors can mislead decision makers.

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